Drug body interactions
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Drug-Body Interactions. Pharmacodynamics = The actions of drug on the body Pharmocokinetics= The actions of the body on the drug. Pharmacodynamic Principles. A. Types of Drug-Receptor interactions Agonists = Bind to, and activate the receptor.

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Drug-Body Interactions

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Drug body interactions

Drug-Body Interactions

  • Pharmacodynamics = The actions of drug on the body

  • Pharmocokinetics= The actions of the body on the drug


Pharmacodynamic principles

Pharmacodynamic Principles

A. Types of Drug-Receptor interactions

  • Agonists = Bind to, and activate the receptor.

    e.g.: Opening of an ion channel or activation of enzyme activity.

  • Antagonists = Prevent binding by other molecules

    e.g.: Atropine, an acetylcholine receptor blocker


Pharmacodynamics cont d

Pharmacodynamics (cont’d)

B. Duration of Drug Action

  • Effect of some drugs last only as long as they are bound to the receptor molecule

  • In other cases, the effect of drugs lasts until a new receptors are synthesized


Pharmacodynamics cont d1

Pharmacodynamics (cont’d)

C. Receptors and Inert binding sites

Two principles:

  • The receptor must be selective in choosing ligands (drug molecules)

  • The receptor must change its function upon binding to cause the pharmacologic effect


Pharmacokinetic principles

Pharmacokinetic Principles

Involve:

  • Absorption

  • Distribution

  • Permeation

  • Elimination


Mechanisms of permeation

Mechanisms of Permeation

  • Aqueous diffusion- intestinal space, cytosol etc

  • Lipid diffusion – Most important limiting factor of drug permeation because of large number of lipid barriers that separates the compartments of our body

  • Special Carriers – peptides, amino acids, glucose

  • Endocytosis and Exocytosis – Large molecules are taken in by endocytosis. Many neurotransmitter substances are stored in membrane bound vesicles. Expulsion into the extracellular space is accomplished by exocytosis


Antimicrobial peptides

Antimicrobial Peptides

  • Cationic peptides- plants, insects& others

  • Disrupt plasma membrane integrity

  • Megainin –from skin of frogs

  • Squalamine – from spiny dogfish shark

  • Protegrins – from pigs


Antisense agents

Antisense Agents

  • Short segments of synthetic DNA

  • Selectively recognize and prevent pathogenic protein


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