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Interplay of Tacit and Explicit Knowledge in Requirements Engineering. Marite Kirikova Riga Technical University LATVIA. What is knowledge. Lock (1632-1704):

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interplay of tacit and explicit knowledge in requirements engineering

Interplay of Tacit and Explicit Knowledge in Requirements Engineering

Marite Kirikova

Riga Technical University

LATVIA

SoMeT 2004

what is knowledge
What is knowledge

Lock (1632-1704):

“Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but perception of the connexion of an agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our ideas”

H. Davenport and L. Prusak [5]:

“Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, expert insight and grounded intuition that provides an environment and framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is applied in the minds of knowers. In organization it often becomes embedded not only in documents or repositories but also in organizational routines, processes, practices, and norms.”

Sidmae:

“Knowledge consists of dynamic functional structures. It comprises the unity of three following aspects: first, understanding of the reality, second, attitude to the reality, and, third, corresponding reaction.”

SoMeT 2004

main emphasis on the following aspects
Main emphasis on the following aspects:
  • Systemic nature of knowledge
  • Dynamic development of knowledge
  • Ownership of knowledge

SoMeT 2004

slide5

Addressing tacit knowledge in ISD methodologies by Fiona M. Murphy & Dr. Larry Stapleton, presented at ISD’04,reprinted by permission

SoMeT 2004

motivation
Motivation
  • Shall we consider potential availability of different types of knowledge and possibilities of its growth when choosing SE approaches?

The hottest point – requirements!

  • How interplay of tacit and explicit knowledge influences capability of the methodology?

SoMeT 2004

approaches under the analysis
Approaches Under the Analysis
  • Use Cases based approach
  • Enterprise Model based approach
  • Agile approach

SoMeT 2004

slide8

Object Model

Use Cases based approach

(simplified)

Knowledge

integration

Use cases

Interviews

SoMeT 2004

slide9

Object

Model

Business

rules

Business

Process

Model

Actors

...

Interviews or group work

Enterprise Model based approach

(simplified)

SoMeT 2004

slide10

Agile approach

(simplified)

Interviews or group work

SoMeT 2004

slide11
Knowledge domains

Knowledge about the enterprise

Knowledge about the the application

Knowledge about the design

Knowledge possesors

Use Cases based approach

User

Analyst

Designer

EM based approach

Planner

Owner

Designer

Agile approach

Stakeholder

Designer

SoMeT 2004

slide12
Knowledge types

Tacit

Explicit

Shallow

Deep

Pieces

Models

System

Knowledge features

Consistency

Individual

Shared

Formal

Completeness

Intuitive

Formal

SoMeT 2004

slide13

Externalisation

Combination

Internalisation

Socialisation

Explicit knowledge

Explicit knowledge

Tacit knowledge

Transfer of tacit

Transfer of explicit

Transfer of explicit

Transfer of tacit

models

system

pieces

knowledge

knowledge

knowledge

knowledge

Transformation of

Transformation of

Transformation of

Transformation of

explicit knowledge

explicit knowledge

tacit knowledge

tacit knowledge

Design

Implementation

Analysis

Transfer of explicit knowledge

Transfer of explicit knowledge

Transfer of tacit knowledge

Transformation of explicit knowledge

Transformation of explicit knowledge

Transformation of tacit knowledge

Knowledge elicitation

Knowledge analysis

Knowledge interpretation

Knowledge acquisition

Learning

Knowledge Processes and Related Concepts

SoMeT 2004

slide14

Socialisation

User and Analyst

Enterprise and

application knowledge

pieces

Information about

Externalisation

the enterprise

User and Analyst

Enterprise knowledge

models

Enterprise knowledge

Application knowledge

models

models

Internalisation

Use Cases

Application knowledge

Designer

models

Enterprise and

applicatoin knowledge

+ designers design

knowledge

Combination

Designer

Design knowledge

system

Design model

Use Cases Based Approach

SoMeT 2004

use cases based approach

Knowledge

Enterprise

Knowledge transfer (Enterprise – Application)

Application

Knowledge transfer (Application - Design)

Design

T

A

C

I

T

Shallow

Pieces

U A d

U

U A d

D

D

Models

U A d

U

U A d

D

D

System

(U) (A) (d)

(D)

(D)

D

Detailed

Pieces

U A

U

U A d

(D)

D

Models

U A

U

U A d

D

D

System

(U)

(D)

D

D

E

X

P

LI

C

IT

Shallow

Pieces

N/a

N/a

Models

System

Detailed

Pieces

Models

System

Consistency check

Individual

+

+

+

Shared

Partly

Partly

-

Formal

-

-

Possible

Completeness

Intuitive

Intuitive and use cases based

Intuitive

Formal

Use Cases Based Approach

SoMeT 2004

slide16

EM Based Approach

Application model

Application knowledge

system

Application details

Design model

Application knowledge

C

Design details

system

Projection

Design knowledge

CASE tool

system

B

Enterprise and design

Enterprise

knowledge system

knowledge

Internalisation

system

Enterprise model

Designer

Design knowledge

Organised constituents

Socialisation

Enterprise model

of the enterprise model

Planner AND Owner

Combination

AND Designer AND

Internalisation

Planner AND Owner

Facilitator

Planner AND Owner

AND Facilitator

New

Constituents of

To be enterprise models

enterprise

the enterprise

knowledge

model

Externalisation

A

To be enterprise and

Planner AND Owner

software knowledge

Externalisation

AND Designer

Socialisation

Planner AND Owner

Planner AND Owner

AND Facilitator

Enterprise knowledge

pieces

New enterprise

knowledge

SoMeT 2004

em based approach

Knowledge

Enterprise

Knowledge transfer (Enterprise – Application)

Application

Knowledge transfer (Application - Design)

Design

T

A

C

I

T

Shallow

Pieces

P O d

P O D

P O D

Models

P O d

P O D

D

System

P O (d)

P O D

D

Detailed

Pieces

P O

P O D

D

Models

P O

P O D

D

System

(P) (O)

(D)

(D)

E

X

P

LI

C

IT

Shallow

Pieces

Models

System

Detailed

Pieces

Models

System

Consistency check

Individual

+

+

+

Shared

+

+

+

Formal

+

+

+

Relative completeness

Intuitive

Formal

Intuitive

Formal

Intuitive

Formal

EM Based Approach

SoMeT 2004

slide18

Socalisation

Socalisation

Stakeholder AND

Application knowledge

Stakeholder AND

Developer

Developer

Knowledge pieces on

Knowledge pieces on

broad range of issues

broad range of issues

Externalisation

Externalisation

Stakeholder and

Stakeholder and

More detailed application

Developer

Developer

knowledge

Initial requirements

Detailed

Shallow enterprise

Shallow enterprise

model

requirements model

and application

and application

models

models

Combination

Combination

Developer

Developer

Shallow or detailed

Detailed design model

design model

Internalisation

Initial design model

Internalisation

Stakeholder AND

Stakeholder AND

Developer

Shallow design

Implementation

Developer

Real software product

model

Developer

Agile Approach

SoMeT 2004

agile approach

Knowledge

Enterprise

Knowledge transfer (Enterprise – Application)

Application

Knowledge transfer (Application - Design)

Design

T

A

C

I

T

Shallow

Pieces

S D

S D

S D

D

D

Models

S D

S D

S D

D

D

System

S D

S D

S D

D

D

Detailed

Pieces

S D

S D

S D

D

D

Models

S D

S D

S D

D

D

System

(S) (D)

(S) (D)

(S) (D)

(D)

(D)

E

X

P

LI

C

IT

Shallow

Pieces

Models

System

Detailed

Pieces

Models

System

Consistency check

Individual

+

+

+

Shared

+

+

+

Formal

-

-

-

Relative completeness

Supported by S involvement

Supported by S involvement

Intuitive

Formal

Agile Approach

SoMeT 2004

slide20

How does the approaches look from the point of view of knowledge?How capable are they?Let us look at potential knowledge growth patterns...

SoMeT 2004

slide21

Diversity of views

Enterprise model

based

Agile

Use-case based

Size of project knowledge system

(tacit+explicit)

Depth of knowledge

SoMeT 2004

conclusions capability of approaches
Conclusions: Capability of approaches
  • Traditional use-cases based approach is most suitable for middle sized, projects where as-is rather than to-be enterprise system is to be supported by new software applications
  • Enterprise model based approach is suitable for large size systems with a potential explicit knowledge reuse. It can be used for as-is enterprises as well as for to-be enterprises, and can handle frequent changes in requirements
  • Agile approach is suitable for small and middle-sized projects, it can handle frequent changes, and is useful for both as-is enterprise applications and to-be enterprise applications

SoMeT 2004

answers to the stated questions
Answers to the stated questions
  • Shall we consider potential availability of different types of knowledge and possibilities of its growth when choosing SE approaches? YES
  • How interplay of tacit and explicit knowledge influences capability of the methodology?
    • Natural flow of knowledge creation
    • Both tacit and explicit systems knowledge
    • Transfer of both tacit and explicit knowledge
    • Appropriate depth of both tacit and explicit knowledge

SoMeT 2004

future work
Future work
  • Analysis of knowledge processes and respectively potential capabilities of other approaches such as:
  • Components based development
  • Patterns based development
  • Natural language based development
  • Adoption of ERP systems
  • Etc.

SoMeT 2004

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