Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency
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Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • 1901 President McKinley assassinated

  • “I told William McKinley that it was a mistake to nominate that wild man at Philadelphia, I asked him if he realized what would happen if he should die. Now look, that damned cowboy is President of the United States!” – Mark Hanna


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency1

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Roosevelt became the youngest president (42) but he never openly rebelled against the leaders of his party, instead he became a champion of cautious, moderate change


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency2

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Believed that the government should be a mediator of the public good, with the president at its center, he also believed that economic concentration had resulted in a consolidation of power that produced dangerous abuses of power, urged regulation (but not destruction) of the trusts


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency3

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Roosevelt wanted the government to have the power to investigate the activities of the corporations and publicize the results, believing that educated public opinion would eliminate most of the corporate abuses


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency4

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Department of Commerce and Labor (1903) - along with the Bureau of Corporations was to investigate activities of corporations and publicize them


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency5

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • In 1902 Roosevelt ordered the Justice Department to invoke the Sherman Anti-Trust Act against the Northern Securities Company, which was a $400 million railroad monopoly in the Northwest led by JP Morgan, EH Harriman, and James J. Hill.


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency6

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • “If we have done anything wrong, send your man to my man and they can fix it up”, Roosevelt proceeded with the case and in 1904 the Supreme Court case ruled that the company must be dissolved


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency7

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Even though Roosevelt filed more than 40 additional antitrust suits during his presidency, he had no serious commitment to reverse the prevailing trend toward economic concentration


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency8

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • In 1902 the United Mine Workers went on strike against the anthracite coal industry, it dragged on long enough to endanger coal supplies, Roosevelt asked both operators and miners to accept impartial


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency9

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Federal arbitration, the mine operators resisted and Roosevelt threatened to seize the mines, in arbitration the miners got a 10% wage increase and a 9 hour work day, more then the union would’ve got without Roosevelt’s help, but Roosevelt also on several occasions sent in federal troops on the behalf of the employers, Roosevelt’s “Square Deal”


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency10

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • During Roosevelt’s first term he was principally concerned with winning re-election, so could not afford to antagonize the conservative Republican Old Guard, he dispensed patronage to conservatives and progressives equally, he won the support of northern businessmen and reformers alike.


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency11

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • In the election of 1904 Roosevelt faced conservative Democrat Alton B. Parker and won 57% of the popular vote and lost no state outside of the South, was free to display the extent of his commitment to reform in his second term


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency12

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 established the Interstate Commerce Commission, which was an early effort to regulate the railroad industry but it was weakened by the courts, Roosevelt got the Hepburn.


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency13

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Railroad Regulation Act of 1905 passed which sought to restore some regulatory authority over railroad rates to the government, many were enraged at how cautious it was (Senator LaFollette)


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency14

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • The Pure Food and Drug Act restricted the sale of dangerous or ineffective medicines, but was limited by its weak enforcement mechanisms


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency15

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • In 1906 Upton Sinclair wrote the powerful novel The Jungle, which caused Roosevelt to push for the Meat Inspection Act that ultimately helped eliminate many diseases once transported in impure meat


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency16

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Starting in 1907 Roosevelt began pushing for more stringent reforms such as an 8-hour work day, compensation for victims of industrial accidents, an inheritance and income tax, and regulation of the stock market.


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency17

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Roosevelt also began to openly criticize conservatives in Congress and the judiciary who were obstructing these programs, this resulted in a widening gap between the president and conservative wing of his party


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency18

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Roosevelt was concerned about the unregulated exploitation of America’s natural resources and its remaining wilderness, using his executive powers Roosevelt restricted private development on millions of acres of undeveloped land, mostly in the West, by adding them to the National Forest system


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency19

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Conservatives in Congress passed a law in 1907 restricting Roosevelt’s authority over public land, Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot (chief forester) worked to seize all the forests and many of the waterpower sites that were still in the public domain before the bill became law


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency20

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Conservationists promoted policies to protect land for carefully managed development, the National Forest Service (led by Pinchot) supported rational and efficient human use of the wilderness


Establishment of national parks and forests

Establishment of National Parks and Forests


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency21

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Roosevelt's legacy in conservation was that he established the government role as a manager of the continuing development of the wilderness


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency22

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • The National Reclamation Act (Newlands Act) provided federal funds for the construction of dams, reservoirs and canals in the West - projects that would open new lands for cultivation and provide cheap electric power this was the beginning of many years of critical federal aid for irrigation and power development in the West


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency23

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • George Perkins wrote Man and Nature in which he said the most important consequence of losing forests was the forest’s role in stabilizing the natural environment, received wide attention and became the basis for the National Forest Service


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency24

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Roosevelt championed the expansion of the National Forest System as a way to protect the landscape for continued rational lumbering, but he also greatly expanded the National Park System to protect public land from any exploitation or development at all


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency25

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • First national park was Yellowstone in Wyoming (1872), followed by Yosemite and Sequoia in California and Mount Rainer in Washington (1890’s), Roosevelt added Crater Lake (OR), Mesa Verde (UT), Platt (OK), Wind Cave (SD)


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency26

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite was a spectacular high walled valley highly popular with conservationists, but San Francisco residents wanted to dam it in order to create reservoir for the city, after the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 and the resulting fire, the public outcry for the dam increased.


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency27

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Opposed by Muir and the Sierra Club, the case was turned over to Pinchot who approved construction of the dam, Pinchot who believed in the rational use of nature was not swayed by Muir’s aesthetic and spiritual arguments


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency28

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Muir helped place a referendum on the issue on the ballot in 1908, but dam was approved by huge margins, the construction of the dam would finally begin after WWI, the fight against the Hetch Hetchy dam helped mobilize a new coalition of people committed to preservation, not the "rational use" of wilderness


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency29

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Panic of 1907 – American industrial production outran the ability of either domestic or foreign markets to absorb it, the banking system and the stock market displayed pathetic inadequacies, and irresponsible speculation and rampant financial mismanagement shattered the prosperity that many thought was permanent


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency30

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • The conservatives blamed Roosevelt's "mad" economic policies, he disagreed but did not interfere with their recovery efforts, JP Morgan helped create a pool of assets from several important New York banks to prop up shaky financial institutions.


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency31

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • The key to this arrangement was the purchase of the shares of Tennessee Coal and Iron Company which were held by a threatened New York bank, US Steel would buy the shares but needed assurances from Roosevelt that he would not face antitrust action, Roosevelt agreed and the Panic soon subsided


Theodore roosevelt and the modern presidency32

Theodore Roosevelt and The Modern Presidency

  • Roosevelt made a promise in 1904 that he would not seek a third term, so after 8 years in the White House in which he had transformed the role of the presidency in American government, Roosevelt retired from public life at the age of 50


The troubled succession

The Troubled Succession

  • William Howard Taft was Roosevelt's handpicked successor, seemed acceptable to both progressives and conservatives, easily defeated William Jennings Bryan in the 1908 election, however, 4 years later Taft left office as the most decisively defeated president of the 20th Century, his party deeply divided, and with the Democrats in control of the government for the first time in 20 years


The troubled succession1

The Troubled Succession

  • Taft called Congress into special session to lower protective tariff rates, but Taft made no attempt to overcome the opposition of Old Guard Republicans arguing that it would violate doctrine of separation of powers, the result was the Payne-Aldrich Tariff which reduced tariff rates scarcely at all, and in some areas raised them, progressives resented Taft’s passivity


The troubled succession2

The Troubled Succession

  • Taft replaced Roosevelt's secretary of interior, James R. Garfield an ardent conservationist, with a the conservative Richard A. Ballinger, a conservative corporate lawyer, Ballinger attempted to invalidate Roosevelt's removal of 1 million acres of forests and mineral reserves from the public lands available for private development


The troubled succession3

The Troubled Succession

  • Louis Glavis, an Interior Department investigator, charged Ballinger with having connived to turn over valuable public coal lands in Alaska to a private syndicate for personal profit, Glavis took the evidence to Pinchot and Pinchot took the investigation to Taft.


The troubled succession4

The Troubled Succession

  • Taft investigated the claims, found that they were groundless and fired Glavis, Pinchot leaked the story out into the press and Taft fired Pinchot for insubordination.


The troubled succession5

The Troubled Succession

  • The result of the Ballinger-Pinchot dispute aroused public passion and Taft alienated supporters of Roosevelt completely

  • Roosevelt became furious with Taft when he returned to New York in 1910 and felt that he alone was capable of reuniting the Republican Party

(Taft has) “…completely twisted around the policies I advocated and acted upon.”

Theodore Roosevelt


The troubled succession6

The Troubled Succession

  • Roosevelt's “New Nationalism” made it clear he had moved away from the cautious conservatism of the first years of his presidency, argued that social justice was possible only through vigorous efforts of strong federal government whose executive acted as the “steward of the public welfare”, those who thought primarily of property rights and personal profit “must now give way to the advocate of human welfare”


The troubled succession7

The Troubled Succession

  • Roosevelt supported graduated income and inheritance taxes, workers' compensation for industrial accidents, regulation of the labor of women and children, tariff revision, firmer regulation of corporations


The troubled succession8

The Troubled Succession

  • In the Congressional elections of 1910, conservative Republicans went down to defeat while progressive Republican incumbents were reelected, Democrats ran progressive candidates of their own and gained control of the House of Representatives for the first time in 16 years, reform sentiment was on the rise


The troubled succession9

The Troubled Succession

  • In 1911 the Taft administration announced a suit that charged US Steel with antitrust violations in the 1907 acquisition of the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company, Roosevelt was enraged by the implication that he had acted improperly


The troubled succession10

The Troubled Succession

  • In 1912 Senator La Follette, who had been campaigning for president himself, suffered a nervous breakdown (exhausted and distraught over his daughter’s illness) Roosevelt announced his candidacy for president on February 22, 1912


The troubled succession11

The Troubled Succession

  • The campaign for the Republican nomination was battle between Roosevelt (progressives) and Taft (conservatives) but Taft remained the choice of most party leaders who controlled the nominating process, Roosevelt told the convention “We stand at Armageddon and we battle for the Lord”, the Republican convention nominated Taft


The troubled succession12

The Troubled Succession

  • Roosevelt launched the new Progressive Party and nominated himself as the presidential candidate, Roosevelt approached the campaign "fit as a bull moose", but many of the insurgents who had supported him during the primaries refused to follow him out of the Republican party


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • Democrats nominated the only true progressive candidate, Woodrow Wilson, on the 46th ballot at the convention in Baltimore in 1912

  • President of Princeton University 1902 – 1910, Governor of New Jersey 1910 – 1912, displayed a commitment to reform


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom1

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • Wilson's “New Freedom” believed bigness (economic concentration in the trusts) was both unjust and inefficient, proper response to monopoly was not to regulate it but to destroy it


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom2

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • 1912 Election – Roosevelt and Taft split the Republican vote allowing Wilson to win the election


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom3

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • Wilson concentrated the powers of the executive branch in his own hands, he exerted firm control over his cabinet, and delegated real authority to those whose loyalty to him was beyond question, Colonel Edward M. House was Wilson’s most powerful advisor even though he held no official position in the executive branch


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom4

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • The Democrats captured both houses of Congress in the 1912 election, which made it much easier for Wilson to get his progressive agenda passed


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom5

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • Wilson called Congress into special session in order to pass the Underwood- Simmons Tariff, which substantially lowered the protective tariff in order to allow real competition into American markets and break the power of the trusts.


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom6

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • Congress approved a graduated income tax (under the 16th Amendment) to make up for lost revenue from the tariff, this first modern income tax imposed a 1% tax on individuals and corporations earning over $4,000 up to a maximum of 6% on incomes of over $500,000


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom7

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • The Federal Reserve Act (1913) created twelve regional banks, each to be owned and controlled by the individual banks of its district, these regional banks would hold a certain percentage of the assets of their member banks in reserve.


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom8

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • The system would use those reserves to support loans to private banks at an interest rate that the Federal Reserve Board would set, they would also issue a new type of currency, Federal Reserve Notes, which would become the nations basic medium of trade and backed by the government.


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom9

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • The Federal Reserve System would be able to shift funds quickly to troubled areas, to meet increased demand for credit, or to protect imperiled banks.


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom10

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • The Federal Trade Commission created a regulatory agency that would help businesses determine in advance whether their actions would be acceptable to the government, the agency would also have authority to launch prosecutions against "unfair trade practices", it would also have the power to investigate corporate behavior


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom11

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • The Clayton Antitrust Act was attacked by conservative interests and weakened it greatly

  • Wilson did little to protect it


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom12

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • By the fall of 1914, Wilson believed that agitation for reform would slowly subside, he refused to support movement for women's suffrage, condoned the reimposition of segregation in the agencies of the federal government (southern Democrats), he dismissed progressive proposals for additional reform legislation as unconstitutional or unnecessary


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom13

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • The 1914 congressional elections resulted in the Democrats suffering major losses in Congress led by voters who had supported the Progressive Party returning to the Republican Party


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom14

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • In January 1916, Wilson appointed Louis Brandeis to the Supreme Court becoming the first Jewish member of the Court and also the most progressive member of the Court


Woodrow wilson and the new freedom15

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

  • Wilson sponsored measures that expanded the role of the national government, he supported the Keating-Owen Act (1916) which was the first federal law regulating child labor, it prohibited the shipment of goods produced by underage children across state lines, the Supreme Court struck down the Keating-Owen Act in 1918


The big stick america and the world 1901 1917

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • The President could act in foreign policy with less regard for Congress and the Supreme Court overseas the president could exercise power unfettered and alone


The big stick america and the world 1901 19171

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • Roosevelt pursued an activist foreign policy, believed in the value of using American power in the world "speak softly but carry a big stick",

  • He believed in an important distinction between the "civilized" and "uncivilized" nations of the world


The big stick america and the world 1901 19172

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • “Civilized” nations were predominantly white, Anglo-Saxon, producers of industrial goods, had a right and duty to intervene in the affairs of the backward nation to preserve order and stability.

  • “Uncivilized” nations were non-white, Latin or Slavic, suppliers of raw materials and markets, not yet industrialized


The big stick america and the world 1901 19173

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • By 1906, the American navy was surpassed only by that of Britain, although Germany was rapidly gaining ground


The big stick america and the world 1901 19174

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • Japan staged a surprise attack on the Russian fleet at Port Arthur in southern Manchuria (China), Roosevelt agreed to mediate an end to the conflict, at the peace conference in Portsmouth, New Hampshire Roosevelt extracted from the Russians a recognition of Japan's territorial gains, and from Japan an agreement to cease fighting and expansion


The big stick america and the world 1901 19175

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • He also negotiated a secret agreement with the Japanese to ensure that the US could continue to trade freely in the region, Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for his work in ending the Russo-Japanese War


The big stick america and the world 1901 19176

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • Japan destroyed the Russian fleet at Port Arthur and began to emerge as the preeminent naval power in the Pacific, the Japanese began to exclude American trade from many of the territories that it controlled.


The big stick america and the world 1901 19177

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • Roosevelt sent the Great White Fleet (sixteen American battleships) on a trip around the world to remind Japan of the potential might of the US Naval forces


The big stick america and the world 1901 19178

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • In 1902, the naval forces of Britain, Italy and Germany blockaded Venezuela's coast in response to Venezuela's reneging on debts owed to European countries, German ships began to bombard a Venezuelan port amid rumors that Germany planned to establish a permanent base in the region, Roosevelt used the threat of American naval power to pressure German navy to withdraw


The big stick america and the world 1901 19179

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • Roosevelt Corollary (1904) to the Monroe doctrine, the US had the right not only to oppose European intervention in the Western Hemisphere, but to intervene itself in the domestic affairs of its neighbors if they proved unable to maintain order and national sovereignty on their own


The united states and latin america 1895 1941

The United States and Latin America, 1895-1941


The big stick america and the world 1901 191710

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • In 1903 the Dominican Republic went bankrupt, it owed $22 million to European nations, Roosevelt gained control of Dominican customs and distributed 45% of the revenues to Dominicans and the rest to foreign creditors


The big stick america and the world 1901 191711

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • The Platt Amendment gave the US the right to prevent any foreign power from intruding into Cuba, in 1906 American troops landed to keep the peace and remained there for 3 years


The big stick america and the world 1901 191712

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • The Panama Canal was the most celebrated accomplishment of Roosevelt's presidency it linked the Pacific and the Atlantic by creating a channel through Central America


The big stick america and the world 1901 191713

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • Roosevelt sent John Hay, his Secretary of State, to negotiate an agreement with Colombian diplomats, Tomas Herren signed an agreement giving US perpetual rights to six-mile wide "canal zone" across Colombia in return for $10 million and an annual rent of $250,000


The big stick america and the world 1901 191714

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • The Colombian Senate was outraged and did not ratify the Herren agreement, sent a new representative to Washington demanding $20 million and share of the payment to the French


The big stick america and the world 1901 191715

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • Phillippe Bunau-Varilla was the chief engineer of the French canal project, he helped organize and finance a revolution in Panama, Roosevelt landed troops from the U.S.S Nashville to “maintain order” and their presence prevented Colombian forced from suppressing the rebellion.


The big stick america and the world 1901 191716

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • The new Panamanian government was recognized by Roosevelt 3 days later and quickly agreed to the canal project, it opened in 1914


The big stick america and the world 1901 191717

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • Dollar Diplomacy – Taft's Secretary of State Philander C. Knox worked aggressively to extend American investments into less-developed regions, Americans intervene in Nicaragua (1909) and then made substantial loans to the new government thus increasing the US financial leverage over the country, two years later a revolution broke out again and US troops remained in Nicaragua for over a decade


The big stick america and the world 1901 191718

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • 1916: Americans established a military government in Dominican Republic after Dominicans refused to accept a treaty that would have made the country a virtual American protectorate Wilson bought the Danish West Indies from the Dutch (fearful that the Germans were about to acquire them) and renamed them the Virgin Islands


The big stick america and the world 1901 191719

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • Under Porfirio Diaz, the corrupt dictator of Mexico, American businesses had been establishing an enormous economic presence in Mexico, in 1910, Diaz was overthrown by Francisco Madero who promised democratic reform and seemed hostile to American businesses in Mexico.


The big stick america and the world 1901 191720

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • The US encouraged Victoriano Huerta to depose Madero and the Taft administration was ready to recognize the new Huerta regime and welcome back a receptive environment for American investments in Mexico.


The big stick america and the world 1901 191721

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • The new government murdered Madero and Wilson announced he would never recognize Huerta's government of butchers, in 1913, Huerta, with the help of American business interests, established a full military dictatorship in Mexico


The big stick america and the world 1901 191722

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • In April 1914, an officer in Huerta’s army temporarily arrested several American sailors from the U.S.S Dolphin who had gone ashore in Tampico, the men were immediately released but the American admiral was not satisfied with the apology he received demanded that the Huerta forces fire a 21 gun salute to the American flag as display of public penance, the Mexicans refused


The big stick america and the world 1901 191723

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • Wilson used the incident as a pretext for seizing the Mexican port of Veracruz, in a clash with Mexican forces Americans killed 126 of the defenders and suffered 19 casualties of their own


The big stick america and the world 1901 191724

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • The Carranza faction captured Mexico City, but refused to accept American guidelines for the creation of a new government, Wilson considered throwing American support to Pancho Villa but his military position deteriorated and Wilson abandoned him.


The big stick america and the world 1901 191725

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • Pancho Villa retaliated by taking 16 American mining engineers off a train in northern Mexico and shooting them, 3 months later Pancho Villa led his soldiers across the border into Columbus, New Mexico where he killed 17 more Americans


The big stick america and the world 1901 191726

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • Wilson ordered General John J. Pershing to lead an American expeditionary force across the Mexican border in pursuit of Pancho Villa, they never captured him but did get into conflicts with the Mexican army in which 40 Mexicans were killed and 12 Americans were killed.


The big stick america and the world 1901 191727

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

  • The US and Mexico looked ready to go to war, but Wilson withdraw quietly and granted formal recognition to the Carranza regime.


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