Integumenatry System
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Integumenatry System. Ch 5. The Skin as an Organ. Function. Protection- mechanical, chemical, bacterial Body temperature regulation Prevent water loss Metabolic- synthesize vitamin D Cutaneous Sensation Blood reservoir Excretion Prevent UV damage. The Skin.

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Integumenatry System

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Integumenatry System

Ch 5

The Skin as an Organ


  • Protection- mechanical, chemical, bacterial

  • Body temperature regulation

  • Prevent water loss

  • Metabolic- synthesize vitamin D

  • Cutaneous Sensation

  • Blood reservoir

  • Excretion

  • Prevent UV damage

The Skin

An organ, cells constantly dying and being replaced

  • Facts:

  • Weighs 9-11 lbs

  • s.a. = 1.5-2m2

  • 1 cm2 has 70 cm blood vessels, 55 cm

  • nerves, 100 sweat glands, 15 oil glands, 230 sensory receptors

  • New skin produced in 25-45 days

The Epidermis

Cells of the Epidermis

  • Keratinocytes (90%)- waterproofs & protects skin, nails, hair, stratum corneum

  • Melanocytes (8%)- produce melanin

  • Merkel Cells- slow mechanoreceptors

  • Langerhans’ Cells- immunological defense

Layers of the Epidermis

  • Stratum Corneum

  • Stratum Lucidum

  • Stratum Granulosum

  • Stratum Spinosum

  • Stratum Basale- (Germinativum)

Layers of the Epidermis

The Dermis


Layers of the Dermis

papillary dermis

reticular dermis

Components of the Dermis

a. Cellular

Fibroblasts (synthesize collagen, elastin, and reticulin), histiocytes, endothelial cells, perivascular macrophages and dendritic cells, mast cells, smooth muscle, and cells of peripheral nerves and their end-organ receptors.

b. Fibrous

Collagen & reticulin - provide tensile strength

Elastic fibers- provide for restoration of shape after a deformation

c. Ground substance

glycosaminoglycans: hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate.

The Hypodermis


This layer contains adipose tissue and serves to attach the dermis to its underlying tissues.

Skin Color

Some variations in human skin color

(Sub-Saharan African, Indian, Southern European, and Northwest European)

Skin color due to: Melanin, Carotene & Hemoglobin

  • Melanin Pigments:

    • Eumelanin:

    • Phaeomelanin

  • > Eumelanin:Phaeomalanin- darker skin and hair color;

  • < Eumelanin:Phaeomalanin- lighter skin and hair color

Skin Color

Human complexions are generally classified into six skin types:

I -light skinned, burns easily, never tans

II - light skinned, burns easily, tans some

III - light skinned, burns occasionally, tans well

IV - light skinned, tans well, rarely burns

V - brown skinned (Asian, Indo-Asian, Chinese, Japanese), tans well, burns rarely, can sunburn after prolonged exposure to UVR

VI - black skinned (Afro-Caribbean), deeply pigmented, can burn after prolonged exposure to UVR

25% US pop

Skin Color Conditions

  • Cyanotic

  • Jaundice

  • Erythema

  • Pallor

Skin/Hair Color: Pigmentation

  • Pigmentation levels usually increase with age.

    • - exception: premature graying

  • Normal pigmentation may be altered by genetic defects or by acquired diseases.

    • -Hyperpigmentation- age spots

    • -Hypopigmentation- vitiligo,

    • albinism

Skin/Hair Color: Pigmentation

  • External agents can also alter skin color.

  • lightening agents

  • carotene

  • dyes

  • Some internal compounds--such as the byproducts of hemoglobin metabolism--may color the skin.



Skin Cancer

  • Malignant melanoma

  • 2% of all cancers

  • Risks:

  • Skin type

  • Sun exposure

  • Family history

  • Age

  • Immunological status

Normal mole Melanoma

  • A= asymmetry

  • B= border

  • C= color

  • D= diameter

Skin Appendages

Sweat Glands

  • Eccrine (merocrine) glands- sweat

  • Apocrine glands- axillary & anogenital areas

  • Ceruminous glands- ears canal

  • Mammary glands- female reproductive glands





Skin Appendages


Skin Appendages


Hair shaft

Sebaceous gland

Hair root

Hair bulb in follicle

Skin Appendages



1st Degree: epidermal damage

Ex. sunburn

2nd Degree: epidermis & upper dermis

Ex. blisters

3rd Degree: entire thickness of skin




Skin replacement:

Tissue Repair

  • Blood vessels dilate

  • WBC & clotting agents released

  • Scab forms

Tissue Repair

  • Granulation tissue forms

  • Capillary beds invade clot

  • Clean up begins

Tissue Repair

  • Scar area has contracted

  • Epithelium regeneration begins


  • In which lay of skin are blood vessels located?

  • Where does epithelium regeneration begin?

  • What color is a persons skin if they are cyanotic?

  • List the layer of the epidermis in order from top to bottom.

  • What is the primary tissue of the hypodermis?

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