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CHECK. 1. Correcting the mistakes ! Example : The ecology is history science The ecology is biological / environmental science 2. Find 3 mistakes in this summary and correct them ! Example : Ecology represents local interests . ( the interests of the whole Earth )

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CHECK

1. Correctingthemistakes!

Example: The ecology is historyscience

The ecology is biological/environmentalscience

2. Find 3 mistakesinthissummary and correctthem!

Example: Ecologyrepresentslocal interests. (theinterests of thewholeEarth)

The biologicaldiversity is thegreatestvalue of Economy. (Ecology )

Ecologyappliesplanningforshorttimee.g. 1 year. (…forlongtimee.g. 20 years)


Check
CHECK

2. Choosingthecorrectsentence! Onesentence is correct/true. Whichone? Choosethecorrectsentence! Put√ (true) and X (false) CorrectthefalsesentencesExample:

The ecology is a study of Economy X (environment/biology)

Profit is thebiggestvalue of Ecology X (Economy)

Ecologyrepresentstheinterests of thewholeEarth√

3. Completethe text (thesentences)!

Example: The ECOLOGY is a study of interactionbetweenthe………….. and thebioticfactors. (abioticfactors)


the definition of BASIC concepts


The definition of ecology
the definition of ECOLOGY

ECOLOGY is:

-Environmentalscience

-Biologicalscience

The SCIENCE of Humans and theEnvironment

The SCIENCE of EnvironmentalProtection

a STUDY of interactionsbetweenthelivingorganismsand theirenvironments

a STUDY of interactionsbetweentheabiotic and bioticfactors

a STUDY of alllivingorganismsintheEcosystems


The definition of oikos habitat
the definition of „OIKOS”, HABITAT

  • OIKOS means:

  • -house,

  • - household,

  • -habitat

  • HABITAT means:

  • a livingarea of livingorganisms

  • - theoriginalplace (naturalplace) of livingorganisms


The tasks of ecology
The tasks of Ecology

  • The task of ecology is conservation of:

  • -biologicaldiversity,

  • - alldifferentorganisms (plants, animals, fungus),

  • -thenaturalhabitat,

  • -thenaturalresources

  • RENEWABLE resourcesmeans:

  • Theycan be replacedbynature (e.g. wind, sunlight, water, geothermalenergy)

  • NON RENEWABLE resourcesmeans:

  • Theycannot be replaced (e.g. fossilenergy: oil, carbon)


The tasks of Ecology

  • The task of ecology is toreduce/topreventpollution

  • - POLLUTION can be causedbyindustry, transport, trade and agriculture

  • Someways of preventionare:

  • Wecanusealternativeforms of energy,

  • Wecanrecyclematerials,

  • Wecanusedecreasingamounts of energy and materials


The principles of Ecology

  • 1. Clean air, cleanwater, biologicaldiversityarethegreatestvalueforEcology

  • 2. Ecologyappliesplanningforlongtime (e.g. 20 years)

  • 3. Ecologyrepresentstheinterests of thewholeEarth


The principles of Economy

  • 1. Profit is thebiggestvalueforEconomy

  • 2. Economyappliesplanningforshorttime (e.g. 1 year)

  • 3. Economyrepresentsthe local interests


The principles of Environmental management

  • 1. Ifpreventioncost is high, thereis no profit.

  • 2. Ifpollutioncost is high, thereis no profit.

  • 3. Ifprevention and pollutioncostareoptimal, there is high profit


The subject of Ecology is theEcosystem

  • The ecosystem is:

  • -anopensystem, wherethere is a material and energywhichdriftsbetweenabioticandbioticfactors,

  • theinteractionsbetweenthelivingorganisms and theirenvironment

  • allorganisms and theirenvironment


the definition of

Environmentalfactors (ecologicalfactors)

The environmental/ecologicalfactorsaretheabioticfactors (nonlivingfactors) in an environment

INDICATIONS OF ECOLOGICAL FACTORS meansthat:

-theabioticfactorsdeterminebioticfactors,

-theabioticfactorsdeterminewhocanlivethere.

The livingorganismscan’tliveanywhere, anytime and inanyvolumeontheEarth.


The classification type of the abiotic factors is according to
the classificationtype of theabioticfactors is accordingto

  • thetype of effects(e.g. chemical, physical),

  • theeffectsonlivingorganism (e.g. theinteractionwithinone species, ortheinteractionbetweenspecies)

  • thequality of effects(e.g. independentlyeffectivefactor/subsistencefactor, orcollectivlyeffectivefactor/conditionerfactor,

  • thegeographicallocation(e.g. abioticfactorsinAquaticEcosystems, orabioticfactorsincontinental/terrestrialEcosystem


abioticfactors IN theTerrestrialecosystem

  • Moisture,

  • -Airfow, air pressure,

  • -Temperature,

  • -Soil,

  • -Rocks,

  • -Sunlight,


  • ABIOTIC FACTORS intheaquaticEcosystem

  • DissolvedOxygen

  • Mineralconcentration of water

  • Watertemperature

  • sunlight


Watercycle

  • Evaporationis:

  • theprocess, whentheoceans , and seasevaporate.

  • Transpirationis:

  • theprocess, whentheplantsgive out vapor.

  • Precipitationincludestherain and snow.

  • Runoff is theprocess, whentherainbecomesgroundwater.

  • Groundwater isthewaterinthesoil.

  • - theinteractionsbetweentheorganism and theirenvironment


Carbon cycle
Carbon cycle

Photosynthesis is the process, when 6CO2 + 6 H2O becomes sugar (glucose) and 6O2 with the help of sunlight.

Respiration is the process, when the living organisms give out O2.

Combustion is a synonym of fire.

Decomposition is the process, when the organic materials (e.g.plants, sewage sludge) disintegrate by metanogen bacteria and later become fossil fuels


NITROGEN CYCLE

The biological nitrogenfixationmeans: thefixation of atmosphericnitrogenbysymbioticbacteria, and synthesis of amino-acids, whichbecome protein

The decomposition of nitrogenbynitrifyingbacteria is theprocess, whentheorganicnitrogengraduallydisintegratesinto NO3


vertical axis: strengths of ecological factor and the response given to it

horizontal axis: changing of ecological factor

maximum

minimum

THE ECOLOGICAL TOLERANCE

The ecologicaltolerancerepresentstheadaptation of livingorganismstochangeoftheenvironment

Tolerance is theintervalbetweeenthe minimum and the maximum value, whenthelivingorganism is viable. Above maximum and under minimum valuethehabitat is lethal.


HIGH TOLERANCE

Hightolerancemeans, whentheintervalbetween minimum and maximum value is large. The hightolerance species aregeneralistsorcosmopolitan, orEURIÖK, theyarewidespreadontheEarth (e.g.lake and seatrout)


LOW TOLERANCE

Lowtolerancemeans, whentheintervalbetween minimum and maximum value is small. The lowtolerance species arespecialistsorindicators, or SZTENÖK (e.g. seacorals, mussels, lichens, perch)


ADAPTATION, MODIFICATION

Adaptationmeans: changewitheffectonthegeneticinformation

Modificationmeans:: changewithouteffectonthegenes .When the difference appearsonly inthephenotype(For example:plantgrows smaller in dry weather).


Adaptabilitytosunlight

The highlighttolerantplantsare HELIOPHYTA

The shadetolerantplantsare HETEROPHILIA

The plantswhichcan be adaptedtotheshade is SCIOPHYTA

The shortdayplantsget less than 12 hoursdaytime(e.g. tropicalzone)

The longdayplantsget more than 12 hoursdaytime(e.g.temperatezone)

The daytimeanimalsareactiveduringthedaytime.

The nighttimeanimalsareactiveduringthenight (e.g.bats, owls)


Adaptability of livingorganisms to TEMPERATURE

Heatdemandmeans: thetolerancetotemperature (hightoleranceor, lowtolerance)

Permanent body temperaturemeans, thattherearelivingorganismswithconstanttemperature(mammals, birds).

Changing body temperaturemeans: thattherearelivingorganismswithinconstantbodytemperature (e.g. reptiles, frogs, salamanders, insects)


Topreventloss of temperature

Bergmann’s rule explainsthat: the ratio betweenthe body mass and the body surface is differentwith species wholiveindifferentclimaticzones. In case of close-relative species, species of larger body mass are found in colder climate zones. Animalswholiveincoldzoneshavesmallersurfacetopreventloss of temperature.

(Aptenodytesforsteri): 100 cm, 30 kg

(Spheniscusmendiculus):

50 cm, 2,5 kg

110X40cm= 4400cm2>>

30 kg >

50X20cm= 1000 cm2

2 kg

4

15


Topreventloss of temperature

Allen’s rule: in case of close-relative species, those who live in colder climate have smallerears.

The Allen’sruleclaimsthatanimalsinwormclimatehavelargeearstogiveoffheat (e.g. desertfox).

The articfox has smallearstopreserveheat.


Topreventloss of temperatureThe adaptation of animals to the temperature

Gloger’s rule: in case of close-relative species, colour is usually lighter in colder climate (e.g. ermine: white in winter and brown in summer (ability to change the colour as adaptation to the environment, mimicry!!!),

Adaptation with fur and hair e.g. polar bear.


Ozone hole ozone depletion
OzoneHole = Ozonedepletion

OzoneHole = Ozonedepletionmeanstheaverageannualdecrease of theozoneconcentrationinthestratosphere.

  • Dobson-unit is themeasure unit of the

  • thickness of theozonelayer. 1 Dobson-unit is

  • 0,01 mm thicklayerat 1 bar atmospheric

  • pressureatthesurface of theEarth.


The stratospheric ozone layer
The stratosphericozonelayer

  • The ozonelayeris situated about 15 to 30 km above the earth's surface.

  • The Ozone protects the living organisms by absorbing harmful UVB (280 nm – 315nm) from the sun.

  • UV-B is dangerous, causes problems for photosynthesis, metabolism . UV-B causes mutate of cells, causes increase malignant/nonmalignant melanoma, and photo allergy.

  • The ozonelayer is being destroyedbyclorine-fluorine-carbon-hidrogens (CFC’s: freon)

  • Is very toxic, because the ozone prevents the absorption of O2 in the lungs.

  • Help the formation of tropospheric ozone if higher quantity of nitrogen-oxids and carbon-hidrogens are in the air


SMOG

  • Smog is a combination of variousgaseswithwatervapor and dust.

  • LONDON SMOG/SULPHUR SMOG/ WINTER SMOG: 2SO2+O2 ↔ 2SO3

  • LA SMOG/ PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG:

    • N2 +O2→2NO→+O2 →2NO2

    • NO2+UV →NO+O

    • O+O2 →O3

    • O3+HC →HCO3


Water reseources
WATER RESEOURCES

  • BOUND WATER RESEOURCES: Itcan be foundinminerals and rocks.

  • ACCESSIBLE WATER RESEOURCES INCLUDE: oceans and freshwater.

    • The freshwaterincludesglacier and deepwaterandsurfacewaterandvapor.

    • The surfacewaterincludeslakes, groundwater, streams, bigenewater.


Earth s ocean
Earth’sOcean

  • Stratifiedhorizontally:

  • Intertidalzone/Wetlands/ litoralregionmeans: landmeetswater, areacoveredwithwaterperiodically.

  • Neriticzone/orcontinentalshelfzonemeans: thedepth of water is fromsurface of oceanto 200 meters. The sunlight is high and nutrientsriche. The CoralReefs of neriticzone, wheredominatedbycoral.

  • Oceaniczone/pelagiczoneis awayfromshore , it is openwater.

    Stratifiedvertcally:

  • Photiczone/lightzone, wherethesunlight is high

  • Aphoticzone/little and zerolightzone

  • Benthiczone/abyssalzone/benthos/deep-seazone: In the benthos region there is no sunlight and nutrients aren’t rich.Food is detritus, thatfallsfromabove. Hydrothermalventshelpchemocinto-tropicorganisms.


Water quality parameters
WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS

  • HALOBITY: ion concentration, depends on the concentration and quality of oll ions of the water

  • Trophic index: the ability for producing organic material of the aquatic communities

  • Eutrophication:Excessive amounts of nitrates can cause too much algae growth. This lowers the dissolved oxygen levels when the algae die and decompose.

  • Saprobicwater: the intensity of decomposition of organic materialsbybacterias. The types of saprobicwaterare: oligosaprobic, mesosprobic, and polysaprobicwater. Intheoligosaprobicwatertheintensity of decompositionoforganicmaterials is small/low. The polysaprobicwater is marshor, swamp.

  • Toxicty: ability to damage an organismbymercury, cyanide, heavymetals , lead.

  • Dissolved Oxygen: levels change throughout the day based on water temperature and photosynthetic activity. Warm water contains less dissolved oxygen than cool water.

  • pH determinethequality ofwater. The wateris acidic or alkaline.


Adaptation to the water
ADAPTATION TO THE WATER

  • aquaticplants, and animals (e.g.seaweeds, fishes)

  • marshplants (e.g.marigold/gólyahír,/ meadowbuttercup/réti boglárka)

  • plantswithmediumwaterdemand (e.g. trees)

  • droughttolerantplants (e.g. species of drygrasslands– chamomile)

  • animal’s species periodicallybindingtowater (e.g. salamander, amphibians)

  • terrestrialanimal species (e.g. butterflies)


The soilprofile
THE SOILPROFILE

  • Litterlayer/ „A” layer

  • Leachinglayer/ „A” layer

  • Accumulation /aggregationlayer/ „B” layer

  • Soilformationlayer/ „C” layer

  • Complete and incomplete structured soils

  • (e.g.: saline soil :  Alayer, limestone:  Blayer)


Rizosphere
RIZOSPHERE

  • Specific habitat is the rizosphere : environment formed by roots (microfloramacrofauna)


Biosphere s levels
Biosphere’slevels

  • Subindividuallevels: molecularlevel, cellularlevel, tissuelevel, organlevel

  • Individualslevel is theorganismlevel (e.g. Flyingfox)

  • Supraindividuallevels: populationlevel, communitylevel, biomelevel, orecosystemlevel.


Populations
POPULATIONS

  • Population: all of the individuals of a species that live together in one place at one time.

  • Population is a group of individuals that live in the same place at the same time.

  • The structural fundamental unit of ecological processes is the population.


Characteristics of populations
Characteristics of Populations

  • Populationsize, (growthrate):is a totalnumber of individualsinthepopulation

  • Population densityis the number of individuals per unit area.

  • Geographicdistributionthe area inhabited by a population

  • Dispersioninterprets how individuals in a population are distributed

  • Agestructure (sex ratio) informs about the number of individuals at different ages

  • Survivorshipcurvesinform aboutreproductivestrategy of populations


  • Population growth
    POPULATION GROWTH

    • Populationincreases: Natality + immigration

    • Populationdecreases: Mortality + emigration

    • 1. Number of births (natality)

    • 2. Number of deaths, mortalityfromdiseases, being eaten

    • 3. Immigration (in) - individuals entering an ecosystem,

    • 4. Emigration (out) - individualsleaving an ecosystem.

    • Growthrate - Positivegrowthrate= populationincrease,

      - Negative growth rate= population decrease.


    Closed population
    CLOSED POPULATION

    • Reproductiverate:

    • r= births – deaths/N (populationsize)

    • These are populations in which individuals can NOT enter or leave.

    • Populations change because of births and deaths, e.g.: ZOO, FISHTANK


    Open populations
    OPEN POPULATIONS

    • Thesearepopulationsaffectedbyall (4) factors: birth, death, immigration, emigration; e.g.: naturalecosystems


    Exponential growth j shaped growth curve
    EXPONENTIAL GROWTH (J shapedgrowthcurve)

    • When the individuals in a population reproduce at constants rate, occurs under ideal conditions (no limits) . G = rN

    • G = the population growth rate

    • r = births-deaths/N (reproductive rate)

    • N = the population size


    Logistic growth s shaped growth sigmoid curve
    Logistic growth (S - shapedgrowthsigmoidcurve)

    • When limiting factors restrict the size of the population to the carrying capacity (K) of the habitat. G = rN(K-N/K)

    • G = the population growth rate

    • r = births-deaths/N (reproductive rate)

    • N = the population size

      K = Carrying capacity of an environment = is the maximum population size that an environment can support


    Reproductive strategies
    REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES

    • R-selectedpopulations (r version)

      • manyoffspring ,

      • littleparentalinvestment ,

      • resultsexponentialgrowth ,

      • usuallyhaveshort life,

      • environmentalconditions of theirhabitatsarevariable,

      • becomesexuallymaturewithin a shorttime,

        The number of individualsof R –strategist species canincreaseexplosion, iftheirenvironmentalconditionsareinvariable. It is calledgradation.


    Reproductive strategies1
    REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES

    • K-selectedpopulations (K version)

      • fewoffspring,

      • largeparentalinvestment,

      • logistic growth,

      • usuallyhavelong life,

      • environmentalconditions of theirhabitatsareconstant,

      • becomesexuallymaturelater,

      • theyincreaseslowly.


    Gradation
    GRADATION

    • Concept of gradationmeans: The number of individuals can increase explosion.

      • latentphase,

      • introductionphase,

      • outbreak,

      • breakdown,

      • closingphase .


    Density of population
    DENSITY of population

    • The DENSITY of population: is the total number of individuals per area or volume occupied.

      • Density dependent factors:

        • Competition for resources

        • Predation

        • The toxic effect of waste product

        • Population size

        • Parasitism

        • Disease

      • Densityindependentfactors:

        • Natural disasters,

        • Climate extremes,

        • Drought,

        • Frost,

        • Some human activities.


    Predation lotka volterra model
    PredationLotka-Volterramodel

    • PredationLotka-Volterramodelexplore a populationdensity of prey and predatorthetimechangesas a function.


    Age structure
    AGE STRUCTURE

    • AGE STRUCTURE:

      These are represent information about the number of population at different ages.

      1. prereproductiveages,

      2. reproductiveages,

      3. postreproductiveages.


    Age structure1
    AGE STRUCTURE

    • AGE STRUCTURE:

      These are represent information about the number of population at different ages.

      1. prereproductiveages,

      2. reproductiveages,

      3. postreproductiveages.


    Age structure2
    AGE STRUCTURE

    • Stable populations : ratio of different age groups is the same at every generation

    • Growing population: more individuals at younger ages.

    • Declining population: more individuals at middle ages.


    Distribution of populations
    distribution of populations

    • Random : weeds ,

    • FRAGMENTED: oasis, desert, savannas,

    • REGULAR : gullnests,

    • REGULAR insmallergroups,

    • Accumulate (aggregating) distribution.


    Community
    COMMUNITY

    • The community is all organisms that live in one (1)/same area at the same time.

    • The communityinclude a biotope and biocenosis.

    • A community is formed from all living populations found in an area.


    Living area
    LIVING AREA

    • TERRITORY:The living space for the individuals.

    • Ecologicalnicheis theenvironment and functionallivingspace of thepopulation. A niche is thefullrange of physical and biologicalenvironmentalfactorsinwhich an organismlives, and thewayinwhichtheorganismusesthoseconditions. Environmentalfactorsdeterminetheniche; reseourcesare: food, nutrients, light, and otherfactorsarespace, time, body size. Adaptationtoenvironment: Climate (latitude, altitude), chemicalfactors (air, soil, water), and biologicalfactors: other species. NARROW NICHE: specialist species, WIDE NICHE: generalist, cosmopolitan species.

    • HABITAT: is where a living organism lives, the environment, in which a species lives.


    Ecological succession
    Ecological Succession

    • The change in an ecosystem that happens when one community replaces another as a result of changing biotic and abiotic factors

    • PRYMARY SUCCESSION: Whenonecommunityreplacesothercommunity.

    • SecOndarySUCCESSION: when a disturbedareagrows back tonormal.


    Interspecific interaction
    Interspecific interaction

    • Commensalism: effects of A on B positive, and effects of B on A neutral.

    • Mutualilism: effects of A on B, and effects of B on A is positivee.g. flower/pollinator.

    • Parasitism:effects of A on B is positive, and of B on A negative.

    • Competition: Effects of A on B is negative and of B on A is negativetoo. Compete for same resource in same place at the same time. Two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time.

    • Predation : Effects of A on B is positive, and of B on A is negative.


    Feeding relationships trophic levels
    Feeding Relationships, TrophicLevels

    • Autotrophs – Producers– plants, thatcaptureenergyfromthesun; Producers are found at the base of the pyramid and compromise the first trophic level.

    • Heterotrophs

      • Consumers

        • Carnivores– animaleaters, Secondary consumers make up the third trophic level.Finally tertiary consumers make up the top trophiclevel(top predators, superpredators)

        • Omnivores – eatbothanimals and plants

        • Herbivores– planteaters, Phytofagous, Primary consumers make up the second trophic level.

      • Decomposers


    Food chain
    Food Chain

    • The producers, consumers and decomposers of eachecosystemmakeup a foodchain.

    • Therearemanyfoodchainsin an ecosystem.

    • Foodchainsrepresent, whereenergy is transferred and notwhoeatswho.

    • Only 10% of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next.


    Food webs
    Food Webs

    • All the food chains in an area make up the food web of the area.


    Biomass
    BIOMASS

    • BIO= LIFE, MASS=WEIGHT

    • BIO+MASS= weight of livingthingswithin an ecosystem.

    • BIO+MASS= the totality of the living organic material within an ecosystem, expressed in g/kg/t.


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