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National Innovation System and Inequality: Russia. Stanislav Zaichenko. Thiruvananthapuram, India, August 19-21 2009. Inequality patterns in Russia. Historical trends Interpersonal inequality Interregional imbalances Inequality by social groups. Historical trends. Inequality patterns.

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National innovation system and inequality russia

National Innovation Systemand Inequality:Russia

Stanislav Zaichenko

Thiruvananthapuram, India, August 19-21 2009


Inequality patterns in russia
Inequality patterns in Russia

  • Historical trends

  • Interpersonal inequality

  • Interregional imbalances

  • Inequality by social groups


Historical trends
Historical trends

Inequality patterns

Period

  • Feudal

  • Estate

  • Class

  • Socio-economic

Until 1861

Until 1917

Until 1991 ?

By now


Interpersonal inequality
Interpersonal inequality

Gini coefficient

Income structure



Interregional imbalances
Interregional imbalances

Depressive regional economies

Natural resources – related industries

(except Moscow)


Interregional imbalances and innovation
Interregional imbalances and innovation

Organisations performing innovation

Production of innovational goods and services, million $ PPP

Organisations performing technology transfer

Expenditure for technological innovation, million $ PPP

Specialisation: Manufacturing Natural resources quarrying and mining Administration/finance Other


Inequality by social groups adaptation mechanisms failure
Inequality by social groups:adaptation mechanisms failure*

Poverty risk, %

* 2003 NOBUS data


Nsi and inequality co evolution
NSI and inequality co-evolution

  • NSI and production orientation

  • Access to infrastructure:

    • health & education

    • knowledge

    • finance

  • Employment, output and wages

    • Employment and output controversial dynamics

    • Informal employment as an adaptation mechanism

    • Productivity failure

  • Regional disparities in competence building and production


Nsi and production orientation
NSI and production orientation

Petroleum, petroleum products and related materials, gas, natural and manufactured: world exports by country, %*

* 2006 UN COMTRADE data


Lack of high tech orientation
Lack of high-tech orientation

Share of civil high tech products exports in the total national products exports by country, %*

* 2006 UN COMTRADE data


Access to infrastructure health
Access to infrastructure: health*

Medical services expenditure structure

* The Federal State Statistics Service data


Access to infrastructure education
Access to infrastructure: education*

* The Federal State Statistics Service data



Access to infrastructure knowledge cont
Access to infrastructure: knowledge (cont.)


Access to infrastructure finance
Access to infrastructure: finance

54.7%

45.3%

Direct funding of government R&D institutions

Competitive funding

Russian Academy of Sciences

Federal goal-oriented programmes

39.1%

26.3%

5.7%

Branch Academies of Sciences

Budgetary foundations

6.2%

0.5%

Moscow State University

22.2%

Other organisations

4.4%

Russian Foundation for Basic Research

0.7%

Russian Foundation for Humanities

1.1%

The Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises


Employment output controversial dynamics
Employment & output: controversial dynamics


Employment output sanitization
Employment & output: “sanitization”

Structure of output and employment by industry, % (2007)


Nature of employment informality
Nature of employment: informality

Share of informal employment in total income, %


Nature of employment back to inequality
Nature of employment: back to inequality

Regions by regional poverty level and share of informal employment in income per capita (2007)


Productivity failure
Productivity failure

Value added per one employee, thousand RUR

Monthly wages by industry, RUR



Conclusion inequality balance
Conclusion: inequality balance

Positive factors

Negative factors

Interregional inequality

Infrastructure

Resources redistribution

Institutional / macroeconomic failures

Innovation

Innovation / business potential

Preserving non-innovation activities

Constraints

Learning

Preserving depressive regions

Mobility mechanisms


Conclusion push pull adaptation today
Conclusion: push-pull adaptation today

PULL:

Centralised budget system

  • Wealth redistribution mechanisms

State

“self-eating”

Inequality / poverty

Survival

PUSH:

“Homemade” adaptation mechanisms

  • Income structure transformation

  • Consumption structure mobilisation

Households

“self-eating”


Conclusion comprehensive push pull scheme
Conclusion: comprehensive push-pull scheme

  • Risk groups addressed policies

  • Mobility assistance:

    • education

    • labor

    • location

  • Infrastructure:

    • knowledge

    • finance

    • basic

  • Health: more flexible insurance

  • Local budgets: more autonomy

PULL:

Adaptation / mobility policies

Long-term

assistance

Inequality / poverty

Development

Single framework

PUSH:

“Homemade” adaptation mechanisms

  • Income structure transformation

  • Consumption structure mobilisation

Short-term

shock protection


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