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Judaism and Christianity. The Semitic religious hearth. Christianity, Judaism, and Islam all arose among Semitic-speaking people All three arose from the margins of the southwestern Asian deserts

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The semitic religious hearth
The Semitic religious hearth

  • Christianity, Judaism, and Islam all arose among Semitic-speaking people

  • All three arose from the margins of the southwestern Asian deserts

  • Judaism, the oldest, originated about 4,000 years ago probably along the southern edge of the Fertile Crescent


Divisions in Judea

  • Romans conquered Judea in 63 B.C.

  • Zealots called on Jews to revolt against Rome

  • In 66 A.D., Roman forces crushed the rebels, captured Jerusalem & destroyed the temple

  • Many enslaved and many left Judea & survived in communities around the Mediterranean: diaspora


Judaism is
Judaism is…

  • “A 4000 year old tradition with ideas about what it means to be human and how to make the world a holy place”

    (Rabbi Harold Kushner, To Life)

  • A “covenant relationship” between God and the Hebrew people

  • A faith, a people, a way of life…


As a faith jews believe
As a faith, Jews Believe…

  • In one God, creator of the universe, personal but non-corporeal

  • In prophets of old – especially Moses, through whom Torah was revealed to the Hebrew people

  • In Torah (first five books of the Bible), containing religious, moral and social law which guides the life of a Jew

    • the Hebrew Bible does not include the New Testament


As a people jews are
As a people, Jews are…

  • 15 – 16 million in worldwide population

  • United by a common heritage, divided in contemporary practice:

    • Orthodox:

      • Modern

      • Chasidic (Ultra Orthodox)

    • Reformed (18th century Germany)

    • Conservative – moderates, response to reform


As a way of life judaism is based on
As a way of life, Judaism is based on…

  • 613 commandments found in Torah (“Written Law”)

  • Talmud (“Oral Law”) – commentary of ancient rabbis that elaborates on how to apply God’s Law in everyday life through:

    • Dietary rules (Kashrut/Kosher)

    • Dress and other symbols

    • Prayer and devotion to the one God

    • The Temple and Temple rites

    • Observance of Holy days

    • Proper social relations between male and female, in business, judicial rulings, etc.

  • Thus sanctifying life, blessing it in every way


How is judaism related to christianity
How is Judaism related to Christianity?

  • Judaism predates Christianity – it is the foundation of Christianity but is not a part of it

  • Jesus was Jewish, as were his followers and the Apostles

  • Jews do not believe that Jesus was anything more than a good and wise man who lived and died 2000 years ago – Jews still await their messiah


The semitic religious hearth1
The Semitic religious hearth

  • About 2,000 years later, Christianity arose as a child of Judaism from this same area

  • Islam arose about seven centuries later in western Arabia, partly from Jewish and Christian roots

  • Religions spread by both relocation and expansion diffusion

    • Expansion diffusion can be divided into hierarchical and contagious subtypes

    • Hierarchical diffusion — ideas are implanted at top of a society, leapfrogging across the map taking root in cities

    • Use of missionaries involves relocation diffusion


The semitic religious hearth2
The Semitic religious hearth

  • Christianity spread through the Roman Empire using the existing splendid road system

    • Clearly reflected hierarchical expansion diffusion

    • Early congregations were established in cities and towns

    • Temporarily established a pattern of Christianized urban centers and pagan rural areas


Jesus and His Message

  • Jewish

  • Most info comes from the “Gospels” Matthew, Mark, Luke, & John

  • Born about 4 B.C.

  • A descendant of King David

  • Virgin birth of Mary

  • Started preaching in Galilee at age 30

  • 12 apostles, …Peter

  • Based on Judaism – 1 g-d, law of Moses, and new beliefs

  • Many believed he was the messiah

  • Emphasized God’s love, service, & forgiveness


Jesus and His Message

  • Some Jews welcomed him

  • Jewish leaders thought he was challenging them

  • Roman authorities thought that he was a revolutionary who might lead Jews into rebellion

  • Jesus was betrayed by one of his disciples

  • He was arrested, tried and condemned to be crucified

  • Although there were guards at the tomb, his body disappeared & Christians believe he was resurrected



Orthodox altar tables always have the GoOrthodox altar tables always have the Gospel enthroned

spelenthroned


Christ is the High Priest in the Bishops’ Throne

Christ is the High Priest in the Bishops’ Throne


The Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholemew - Constantinople




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