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Hillslopes - moving mass: creep,slides and flows Force balance - driving vs resisting forcesPowerPoint Presentation

Hillslopes - moving mass: creep,slides and flows Force balance - driving vs resisting forces

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Hillslopes - moving mass: creep,slides and flows Force balance - driving vs resisting forces

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Hillslopes - moving mass: creep,slides and flows Force balance - driving vs resisting forces

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Hillslopes - moving mass: creep,slides and flows

Force balance - driving vs resisting forces

Soil creep - slope dependent, diffusive processes

Mass movements - landslides and rock falls

Flows - of debris and mud

DRIVING VERSUS RESISTING

GRAVITY

SHEAR STRENGTH (FRICTION

AND COHESION or VISCOSITY)

http://ees.as.uky.edu/sites/default/files/elearning/module11swf.swf

- Rainsplash (bare soil only)
- Channels (ephemeral, permanent)
- Creep (grab-bag, many processes)
- Mass movement (landsliding = translational, rotational and rockfall)
- Flowage (debris and mud)

2

Rainsplash - splatering, downslope component

2

Incision begins when shear stress exceeds strength

2

Critical Distance from drainage divide = channelization

3

Soil Creep - evidence

Rate is a function of slope Q= ks

Marathon Basin, west Texas. J.S. Aber.

Which way is soil moving?

3

3

NET DOWNSLOPE TRANSPORT

Rotational failure - clay, silt, homogeneous material

Bishop method of slices

Rotational Failures

The Ritterbush Record

50 cm

2000

2600

Calendar Years BP

5900

6800

8200

9400

AMS 14C Analysis

Storm Frequency

2

4

6

8

10

12

0

Calendar kyr BP

• 4 maxima; currently increasing—observed?

North

Atlantic

Climate

Storm

Freq.

Coolings

Storms

Floods

GISP2 ssNa

GISP2 nssK

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Calendar kyr BP