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Piloting. Symbol Summary. Precision vs. Accuracy. What you attempt to do Charts, Tools, Plotting, compass scale, decimal minutes of L, Lo … vs. What you can expect to realize Helmsmanship, Compass performance, Effects of the sea and weather Helmsmanship

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Precision vs. Accuracy

  • What you attempt to do

    • Charts, Tools, Plotting, compass scale, decimal minutes of L, Lo

    • … vs.

  • What you can expect to realize

    • Helmsmanship, Compass performance, Effects of the sea and weather

  • Helmsmanship

    • Largest factor in reaching destination

      • Boat response to seas

      • Attention to the helm

      • Avoiding other boats


Typical Accuracy Factors

  • Plotting

    • 1° is achievable

  • Helmsmanship

    • 3° may be practical

  • Compass

    • 2° should be expected

  • Averages out to about 4°

    • 4° error = 424 ft in a nm run = .7 nm in 10 nm run


  • Piloting

    • Maintain chart plot

      • Planned course (leg)

      • Speed

      • Plot GPS fix nominally at hourly intervals

        • Verify by other means

        • More frequent if conditions warrant

      • THIS FIX MAY BE THE ONLY REFERENCE YOU HAVE IN THE EVENT OF A GPS FAILURE

    • Annotate any significant information

      • On the chart or notepad

      • Problems, emergency radio calls, etc.


    Piloting

    • Positioning Standards

      • Plot to nearest degree

      • Steer to within 2°

      • Speed noted to nearest 2 significant digits

        • e.g., 4.5 Kn, 15 Kn

      • Depth to nearest foot

      • Distance to nearest 1/10 nm

      • Fix time to nearest minute


    Labeling Magnetic Planned Courses

    1. Draw & Measure COURSE LINE

    carefully between points

    Destination

    2. Label COURSE

    near starting point

    “C” (direction – 3 digits)

    C 080 M

    D 4.5

    3. Label DISTANCE

    near mid-point

    “D” (nm + tenths)

    Start


    Labeling DR Courses

    1. Draw & Measure COURSE LINE

    carefully between points

    2. Label COURSE

    near starting point

    “C” (direction – 3 digits)

    1030

    C 070 M

    4. Plot & Label DR Position

    dot – half circle

    Time (4 digits on diagonal)

    1000

    S 6.0

    3. Label SPEED

    near starting point

    “S” (Kn – 2 significant digits)

    D = (S x T) / 60

    D = (6.0 X 30) / 60

    D = 3.0 nm

    Plot while navigating



    Bow Bearing

    1030

    070 M

    070 M


    Beam Bearing

    070 M

    90R

    1030

    160 M


    Beam Bearing

    1030

    340 M

    070 M

    270R


    Plotting & Labeling Standards Waypoint Planning

    SRTWR

    All charted navigation aid (ATON’s) used as waypoints or possible position checks are identified.

    Waypoint symbol used when not charted navigation aid.

    Legs of planned cruise are plotted.

    MAGNETIC course direction labeled above line with reciprocal shown, to nearest whole degree, in three digits, using prefix “C”.

    Distance labeled below line midway between waypoints, to nearest tenth, using prefix “D”.

    Avoidance techniques plotted and labeled (taught in Advanced Piloting), including cross-track error; danger circles; danger bearings; and radar avoidance circles.

    BBWP3

    SRR2

    C284M

    C104M

    D 6.2

    C194M

    C178M

    NLT 026M

    BBWP2

    SRG1

    XTE D 0.2

    CIB

    D 4.2

    NLT D0.5

    D 4.6

    C358M

    BBR8

    Radar NLT D 1.0

    CPRG

    BBR10

    C014M

    C231M

    C271M

    BBWP1

    D 2.6

    D 6.7

    C051M

    C081M

    ORRW

    BBG7

    BBG9


    Plotting & Labeling Standards Waypoint Navigation

    SRTWR

    Waypoints, legs, course, distance and avoidance areas have been pre-plotted.

    Underway, as you depart/arrive at each waypoint, circle point and label times parallel to bottom of chart in 4 digits using 24-hour clock.

    Speed is labeled for each leg, near the beginning of each course line, in 2 significant digits, using prefix “S”.

    Hourly or when needed unless you are off-course outside your pre-qualified distance, a GPS position is plotted using fix symbol and labeled. It is not necessary to plot a new course line to next waypoint unless you are seriously off-course.

    If possible cross-check GPS with visual bearing and plot, labeling with time above bearing line and magnetic direction below.

    If the GPS is suspect, determine current position from bearings or last known good position by dead reckoning.

    BBWP3

    1550

    C284M

    C104M

    1510 GPS

    S 10

    SRR2

    D 6.2

    S 12

    1500 GPS

    C194M

    C178M

    1500 070M

    BBWP2

    NLT 026M

    SRG1

    XTE D 0.2

    1600 307M

    CIB

    D 4.6

    D 4.2

    NLT D0.5

    1600 GPS

    1600 270M

    Radar NLT D 1.0

    C358M

    BBR8

    CPRG

    BBR10

    1615

    S 9.0

    C014M

    C231M

    S4.0

    C271M

    BBWP1

    1420 GPS

    D 2.6

    D 6.7

    C051M

    1400 GPS

    C081M

    1400 130M

    ORRW

    BBG7

    S 6.5

    BBG9

    1300

    1650


    Plotting & Labeling Standards Dead Reckoning Navigation

    Danger bearings and ranges would have been pre-plotted.

    Underway, dead reckoning courses (DR Track) are plotted from a known position in the direction of travel and labeled with course direction above the line and speed below.

    Visual bearing are plotted and labeled with time above bearing line and magnetic direction below.

    A DR position is plotted at the time of each bearing using the symbol and labeled with time diagonally.

    A DR position is plotted at the time of each course or speed change using the symbol and labeled with time diagonally.

    Fix positions are determined by multiple bearings or arrival at charted navigation aids and indicated with the symbol labeled with time parallel to the bottom of the chart.

    New DR tracks are begun only from fix positions.

    1420

    NLT 025M

    1400

    C 018M S 10

    1400 320M

    1400 250M

    1400

    C 350M S 10

    1330

    1341

    1330 216M

    C 305M S 7.8

    1300


    Plotting & Labeling Standards Waypoint/DR Navigation

    SRTWR

    1525 040M

    Should your electronics fail, you must be ready to revert to DR methods.

    Shortly after departing BBWP3 your GPS begins to display sporadic readings and completely fails at 1525.

    Determine current position from bearings or last known good position.

    Proceed using dead reckoning, verify by bearings.

    1525

    1525 270M

    BBWP3

    1525

    C284M

    C104M

    C205M S 10

    1510 GPS

    S 10

    SRR2

    D 6.2

    1500 GPS

    C194M

    C178M

    1500 070M

    BBWP2

    NLT 026M

    SRG1

    XTE D 0.2

    CIB

    D 4.6

    D 4.2

    NLT D0.5

    Radar NLT D 1.0

    C358M

    BBR8

    CPRG

    1555

    BBR10

    S 9.0

    C014M

    C231M

    S 5.0

    C271M

    BBWP1

    1420 GPS

    D 2.6

    D 6.7

    C051M

    1400 GPS

    C081M

    1400 130M

    ORRW

    BBG7

    S 6.5

    BBG9

    1300

    ORR2

    1630

    ORG1

    BCRW

    BCR2


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