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Piloting. Symbol Summary. Precision vs. Accuracy. What you attempt to do Charts, Tools, Plotting, compass scale, decimal minutes of L, Lo … vs. What you can expect to realize Helmsmanship, Compass performance, Effects of the sea and weather Helmsmanship

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Presentation Transcript
slide3

Precision vs. Accuracy

  • What you attempt to do
    • Charts, Tools, Plotting, compass scale, decimal minutes of L, Lo
    • … vs.
  • What you can expect to realize
    • Helmsmanship, Compass performance, Effects of the sea and weather
  • Helmsmanship
    • Largest factor in reaching destination
      • Boat response to seas
      • Attention to the helm
      • Avoiding other boats
slide4

Typical Accuracy Factors

    • Plotting
      • 1° is achievable
    • Helmsmanship
      • 3° may be practical
    • Compass
      • 2° should be expected
  • Averages out to about 4°
    • 4° error = 424 ft in a nm run = .7 nm in 10 nm run
slide5

Piloting

  • Maintain chart plot
    • Planned course (leg)
    • Speed
    • Plot GPS fix nominally at hourly intervals
      • Verify by other means
      • More frequent if conditions warrant
    • THIS FIX MAY BE THE ONLY REFERENCE YOU HAVE IN THE EVENT OF A GPS FAILURE
  • Annotate any significant information
    • On the chart or notepad
    • Problems, emergency radio calls, etc.
slide6

Piloting

  • Positioning Standards
    • Plot to nearest degree
    • Steer to within 2°
    • Speed noted to nearest 2 significant digits
      • e.g., 4.5 Kn, 15 Kn
    • Depth to nearest foot
    • Distance to nearest 1/10 nm
    • Fix time to nearest minute
slide7

Labeling Magnetic Planned Courses

1. Draw & Measure COURSE LINE

carefully between points

Destination

2. Label COURSE

near starting point

“C” (direction – 3 digits)

C 080 M

D 4.5

3. Label DISTANCE

near mid-point

“D” (nm + tenths)

Start

slide8

Labeling DR Courses

1. Draw & Measure COURSE LINE

carefully between points

2. Label COURSE

near starting point

“C” (direction – 3 digits)

1030

C 070 M

4. Plot & Label DR Position

dot – half circle

Time (4 digits on diagonal)

1000

S 6.0

3. Label SPEED

near starting point

“S” (Kn – 2 significant digits)

D = (S x T) / 60

D = (6.0 X 30) / 60

D = 3.0 nm

Plot while navigating

slide10

Bow Bearing

1030

070 M

070 M

slide11

Beam Bearing

070 M

90R

1030

160 M

slide12

Beam Bearing

1030

340 M

070 M

270R

slide13

Plotting & Labeling Standards Waypoint Planning

SRTWR

All charted navigation aid (ATON’s) used as waypoints or possible position checks are identified.

Waypoint symbol used when not charted navigation aid.

Legs of planned cruise are plotted.

MAGNETIC course direction labeled above line with reciprocal shown, to nearest whole degree, in three digits, using prefix “C”.

Distance labeled below line midway between waypoints, to nearest tenth, using prefix “D”.

Avoidance techniques plotted and labeled (taught in Advanced Piloting), including cross-track error; danger circles; danger bearings; and radar avoidance circles.

BBWP3

SRR2

C284M

C104M

D 6.2

C194M

C178M

NLT 026M

BBWP2

SRG1

XTE D 0.2

CIB

D 4.2

NLT D0.5

D 4.6

C358M

BBR8

Radar NLT D 1.0

CPRG

BBR10

C014M

C231M

C271M

BBWP1

D 2.6

D 6.7

C051M

C081M

ORRW

BBG7

BBG9

slide14

Plotting & Labeling Standards Waypoint Navigation

SRTWR

Waypoints, legs, course, distance and avoidance areas have been pre-plotted.

Underway, as you depart/arrive at each waypoint, circle point and label times parallel to bottom of chart in 4 digits using 24-hour clock.

Speed is labeled for each leg, near the beginning of each course line, in 2 significant digits, using prefix “S”.

Hourly or when needed unless you are off-course outside your pre-qualified distance, a GPS position is plotted using fix symbol and labeled. It is not necessary to plot a new course line to next waypoint unless you are seriously off-course.

If possible cross-check GPS with visual bearing and plot, labeling with time above bearing line and magnetic direction below.

If the GPS is suspect, determine current position from bearings or last known good position by dead reckoning.

BBWP3

1550

C284M

C104M

1510 GPS

S 10

SRR2

D 6.2

S 12

1500 GPS

C194M

C178M

1500 070M

BBWP2

NLT 026M

SRG1

XTE D 0.2

1600 307M

CIB

D 4.6

D 4.2

NLT D0.5

1600 GPS

1600 270M

Radar NLT D 1.0

C358M

BBR8

CPRG

BBR10

1615

S 9.0

C014M

C231M

S4.0

C271M

BBWP1

1420 GPS

D 2.6

D 6.7

C051M

1400 GPS

C081M

1400 130M

ORRW

BBG7

S 6.5

BBG9

1300

1650

slide15

Plotting & Labeling Standards Dead Reckoning Navigation

Danger bearings and ranges would have been pre-plotted.

Underway, dead reckoning courses (DR Track) are plotted from a known position in the direction of travel and labeled with course direction above the line and speed below.

Visual bearing are plotted and labeled with time above bearing line and magnetic direction below.

A DR position is plotted at the time of each bearing using the symbol and labeled with time diagonally.

A DR position is plotted at the time of each course or speed change using the symbol and labeled with time diagonally.

Fix positions are determined by multiple bearings or arrival at charted navigation aids and indicated with the symbol labeled with time parallel to the bottom of the chart.

New DR tracks are begun only from fix positions.

1420

NLT 025M

1400

C 018M S 10

1400 320M

1400 250M

1400

C 350M S 10

1330

1341

1330 216M

C 305M S 7.8

1300

slide16

Plotting & Labeling Standards Waypoint/DR Navigation

SRTWR

1525 040M

Should your electronics fail, you must be ready to revert to DR methods.

Shortly after departing BBWP3 your GPS begins to display sporadic readings and completely fails at 1525.

Determine current position from bearings or last known good position.

Proceed using dead reckoning, verify by bearings.

1525

1525 270M

BBWP3

1525

C284M

C104M

C205M S 10

1510 GPS

S 10

SRR2

D 6.2

1500 GPS

C194M

C178M

1500 070M

BBWP2

NLT 026M

SRG1

XTE D 0.2

CIB

D 4.6

D 4.2

NLT D0.5

Radar NLT D 1.0

C358M

BBR8

CPRG

1555

BBR10

S 9.0

C014M

C231M

S 5.0

C271M

BBWP1

1420 GPS

D 2.6

D 6.7

C051M

1400 GPS

C081M

1400 130M

ORRW

BBG7

S 6.5

BBG9

1300

ORR2

1630

ORG1

BCRW

BCR2

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