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Chapter 8 The Employment Interview - Chapter 8The Employment Interview


2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.. Chapter Summary. Choosing a Career PathAnalyzing YourselfDoing Your HomeworkConducting the SearchPreparing CredentialsCreating a Favorable First ImpressionAnswering QuestionsAsking QuestionsThe ClosingEvaluation and Follow-UpSum

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Chapter 8 The Employment Interview

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Chapter 8 the employment interview

Chapter 8

The Employment Interview


Chapter summary

Chapter Summary

  • Choosing a Career Path

  • Analyzing Yourself

  • Doing Your Homework

  • Conducting the Search

  • Preparing Credentials

  • Creating a Favorable First Impression

  • Answering Questions

  • Asking Questions

  • The Closing

  • Evaluation and Follow-Up

  • Summary

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Choosing a career path

Choosing a Career Path

  • Current market trends:

    • Retail at every level

    • Hospitality management

    • Health care in every form

    • Education/training

    • Technology

    • Engineering

  • Preparation is the key to successful employment interviews.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Analyzing yourself

Analyzing Yourself

  • Questions to Guide Your Self-Analysis

    • What are your personality strengths and weaknesses?

    • What are your intellectual strengths and weaknesses?

    • What are your communicative strengths and weaknesses?

    • What have been your accomplishments and failures?

Continued...

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Analyzing yourself1

Analyzing Yourself

  • Questions to Guide Your Self-Analysis

    • What are your professional strengths and weaknesses?

    • What do you want in a position and organization?

    • What are your most valued needs?

    • What are your professional interests?

    • What is your tolerance of risk?

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Doing your homework

Doing Your Homework

  • Research your field

  • Research organizations

  • Research the recruiter

  • Research the position

  • Research current events

  • Research the interview process

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Doing your homework1

Doing Your Homework

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Doing your homework2

Doing Your Homework

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the search

Conducting the Search

  • Networking

  • The Obvious Places

  • The Placement Agency or Service

  • Publications

  • The Internet

  • Career Fairs

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Preparing credentials

Preparing Credentials

  • Resumes

    • No single resume is suitable for all positions.

    • Content of Resumes

      • Impressive career objectives; phrase them with great care.

      • Your educational record is most important for your first position.

      • Relevant experiences can set you apart from the crowd.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Preparing credentials1

Preparing Credentials

  • Resumes

    • Types of Resumes

      • Chronological resume; use action verbs to show that you are a doer.

      • Functional resume; place your experiences under headings that highlight your qualifications.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Preparing credentials2

Preparing Credentials

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Preparing credentials3

Preparing Credentials

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Preparing credentials4

Preparing Credentials

  • Resumes

    • Mechanics of Resumes

      • Make your resume easy to review.

      • Proofread your resume with great care.

      • Terms and labels are critical in scannable resumes.

      • There is no simple formula for creating resumes.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Preparing credentials5

Preparing Credentials

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Preparing credentials6

Preparing Credentials

  • The Portfolio

    • Your portfolio shows you in action

  • The Cover Letter

    • Design and target letters to specific positions and organization

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Preparing credentials7

Preparing Credentials

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Preparing credentials8

Preparing Credentials

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Preparing credentials9

Preparing Credentials

  • Personal Web Sites, Pages, and Blogs

    • Can be useful in professional impression formation

    • Can provide negative information to interviewers

    • Studies show recruiters are influenced by cyber-information about applicants

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Creating a favorable first impression

Creating a Favorable First Impression

  • Relationship of the Interviewing Parties

    • Know how and when to share control of the interview.

    • Understand and adapt to the relationship with the recruiter.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Creating a favorable first impression1

Creating a Favorable First Impression

  • Dress and Appearance

    • Dress for a formal business occasion.

    • Neatness costs nothing and pays dividends.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Creating a favorable first impression2

Creating a Favorable First Impression

  • Dress and Appearance: Advice for Men

    • Be on the conservative side in dress and appearance.

    • Coordinate colors carefully.

    • When in doubt, ask for help.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Creating a favorable first impression3

Creating a Favorable First Impression

  • Dress and Appearance: Advice for Women

    • Appearance should not call attention to itself.

    • Provocative clothing can end your candidacy.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Creating a favorable first impression4

Creating a Favorable First Impression

  • Nonverbal Communication

    • Nonverbal communication is critical in first impressions.

    • Be alive and dynamic.

    • Good communication skills are important in all positions.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Creating a favorable first impression5

Creating a Favorable First Impression

  • Arrival and Opening

    • Be on time and ready to interact.

    • How you handle yourself during the first few minutes with a stranger tells them a great deal about your interpersonal communication and people skills.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Answering questions

Answering Questions

  • Preparing to Respond

    • Be ready to handle traditional questions.

    • Welcome on-the-job questions to show what you can do.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Answering questions1

Answering Questions

  • Responding: Successful Applicants

    • Listen, think, and then answer.

    • Effective answers are long on substance and short on puffery.

    • Do not play act; act yourself.

    • Good recruiters detect phoniness.

    • Be informed before replying.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Answering questions2

Answering Questions

  • Responding: Unsuccessful Applicants

    • Unsuccessful applicants are passive and cautious.

    • Know what not to do during interviews, and then do not do it.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Answering questions3

Answering Questions

  • Unlawful Questions

    • Do not be surprised by unlawful questions.

    • Identifying Unlawful Questions

      • The pressure is on the applicant.

      • Review EEO laws and your rights.

      • Beware of recruiter tricks to get unlawful information.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Asking questions

Asking Questions

  • Guidelines for asking questions

  • Question pitfalls

  • Sample applicant questions

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


The closing

The Closing

  • Be aware of everything you say and do.

  • Take and active part in the closing.

  • It’s not over ‘til it’s over.

  • The employer is likely to note everything you do and say.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Evaluation and follow up

Evaluation and Follow-Up

  • Remember: the interview is more art than science.

  • Be thorough in your debriefing.

  • Quality applicants write thank you notes.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Summary

Summary

  • We are undergoing a second industrial revolution that’s moving from a manufacturing to a service and information-oriented society.

  • The best positions in the future will go to those who understand and are prepared for the selection process.

  • You must know yourself, the position, and the organization to be selected for a job.

  • The job search must be extensive.

  • Interviewing skills are increasingly important.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Chapter 9 the performance interview

Chapter 9

The Performance Interview


Chapter summary1

Chapter Summary

  • New Visions for New Organizations

  • Preparing for the Performance Interview

  • Selecting an Appropriate Review Model

  • Conducting the Performance Review Interview

  • The Employee in the Performance Review

  • The Performance Problem Interview

  • Summary

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


New visions for new organizations

New Visions for New Organizations

  • Employee leadership and initiative are essential in the new world of work.

  • Performance is the key to new thinking.

  • Motivation is replacing discipline.

  • Compensation has become more than salary and fringe benefits.

  • The goal is to achieve a balance among all facets of the organization.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


New visions for new organizations1

New Visions for New Organizations

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Preparing for the performance interview

Preparing for the Performance Interview

  • Preparation Advice

    • Supportive Climate is Preferred by Interviewees

    • Regular Feedback Avoids Surprises

    • Interviewers Must be Trained

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


New visions for new organizations2

New Visions for New Organizations

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Preparing for the performance interview1

Preparing for the Performance Interview

  • Reviewing Rules, Laws, and Regulations

    • Be careful of judging what you cannot measure.

    • Changing demographics have led to changes in methods and assumptions.

    • Age will play an ever-greater role as baby boomers turn 50 and 60 in ever-greater numbers.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Selecting an appropriate review model

Selecting an Appropriate Review Model

  • Person-Product-Service Model

  • Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) Model

  • Management by Objectives (MBO) Model

  • Universal Performance Interviewing Model

  • The 360-Degree Approach

  • Force Choice Distribution

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Selecting an appropriate review model1

Selecting an Appropriate Review Model

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Selecting an appropriate review model2

Selecting an Appropriate Review Model

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Selecting an appropriate review model3

Selecting an Appropriate Review Model

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Selecting an appropriate review model4

Selecting an Appropriate Review Model

  • Review Model Summary

    • Select the method best suited to your situation.

    • All models and approaches have the same goal—improved employee performance.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the performance review interview

Conducting the Performance Review Interview

  • Do your homework.

  • Select and understand the perspective of the interview.

  • Relationship influences both parties and the nature of the interview.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the performance review interview1

Conducting the Performance Review Interview

  • Opening the Interview

    • Climate and atmosphere are critical.

    • Be prepared but flexible in opening the interview.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the performance review interview2

Conducting the Performance Review Interview

  • Discussing Performance

    • Use all of your listening skills.

    • Feedback is central in performance interviews.

    • Develop a true dialogue with the interviewee.

    • Enhance trust and cooperation to avoid conflict.

    • Strive for a balance between praise and criticism.

    • Be aware of potential biases.

    • Know how to conduct performance interviews.

    • Use question tools to gain and verify information.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the performance review interview3

Conducting the Performance Review Interview

  • Setting New Goals and a Plan of Action

    • Focus on the future and not the past.

    • The interviewee must be an active participant.

    • Review the last period’s goals before going on to new ones.

    • Do not make the goals too easy or too difficult.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the performance review interview4

Conducting the Performance Review Interview

  • Closing the Interview

    • Close with the perception that the interview has been valuable for both parties.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the performance review interview5

Conducting the Performance Review Interview

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


The employee in the performance review

The Employee in the Performance Review

  • Do a self-evaluation before the interview.

  • Approach the interview with a positive attitude.

  • Avoid unnecessary defensiveness.

  • A good offense is better than a good defense.

  • Leave your temper at the door.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


The performance problem interview

The Performance Problem Interview

  • The need for discipline has become a performance problem.

  • Determining Just Cause

    • Know what constitutes a just cause.

    • Treat all employees fairly and equally.

    • The punishment must fit the infraction.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


The performance problem interview1

The Performance Problem Interview

  • Testing for Just Cause

    • Did the employee violate reasonable rules or orders?

    • Was the employee given clear and unambiguous notice?

    • Was the investigation timely and fair?

    • Were all employees given equal treatment?

    • Is there proof and documentation?

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


The performance problem interview2

The Performance Problem Interview

  • Preparing for the Interview

    • Practice before conducting the real thing.

    • Be prepared for common reactions and responses.

    • What evidence do you have of the infraction?

    • Distinguish between the severity of infractions.

    • Learn why an infraction has occurred.

    • Relational dimensions are critical in performance problem interviews.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


The performance problem interview3

The Performance Problem Interview

  • Keeping Self and Situation Under Control

    • Uncontrolled anger can destroy an interaction.

    • Timing of the interview may be critical.

    • Hold the interview in a private location.

    • With severe problems, consider obtaining assistance.

    • Consider including a witness or union representative.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


The performance problem interview4

The Performance Problem Interview

  • Focusing on the Problem

    • Deal with facts rather than impressions and opinions.

    • Avoid unsupported accusations.

    • Ask questions that draw out the interviewee.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


The performance problem interview5

The Performance Problem Interview

  • Avoiding Conclusions During the Interview

    • Be slow to draw conclusions.

    • Do not verbalize conclusions during the interview.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


The performance problem interview6

The Performance Problem Interview

  • Closing the Interview

    • Conclude the interview in neutral.

    • If discipline or termination is appropriate, do it.

    • Delaying action may enable you to think more clearly about the incident.

    • Apply all rules and actions equally to all employees.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Summary1

Summary

  • Evaluate an employee’s performance on the basis of standards mutually agreed upon ahead of time.

  • Apply the same standards equally to all employees performing a specific job.

  • Flexibility and open-mindedness are important keys in successful performance review interviews.

  • The performance process must be ongoing.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Chapter 10 the persuasive interview the persuader

Chapter 10

The Persuasive Interview: The Persuader


Chapter summary2

Chapter Summary

  • The Ethics of Persuasion

  • Preparing for the Interview

  • Analyzing the Situation

  • Researching the Issue

  • Planning the Interview

  • Conducting the Interview

  • Summary

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


The ethics of persuasion

The Ethics of Persuasion

  • Psychological Strategies

    • When do we cross ethical boundaries?

    • Is the effort to influence the lives of others inherently unethical?

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


The ethics of persuasion1

The Ethics of Persuasion

  • Fundamental Ethical Guidelines

    • Who Are You?

    • Who is Your Interviewee?

    • How Adequate is Your Content?

    • How Open Will You Be?

    • Are You Innocent of Ethical Violations?

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Five interrelated conditions for persuasion

Five Interrelated Conditions for Persuasion

  • Your proposal must create or address an urgent need or one or more desires or motives.

  • Your proposal and you as persuader must be consistent with the interviewee’s beliefs, attitudes, and values.

  • Your proposal must be feasible, workable, practical, or affordable.

  • Your proposal’s benefits must outweigh objections.

  • No better course of action is available.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Preparing for the interview

Preparing for the Interview

  • Seven Concerns

    • Sources

    • Analyzing the Other Party

    • Physical & Mental Characteristics

    • Socioeconomic Background

    • Culture

    • Values/Beliefs/Attitudes

    • Emotion

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Analyzing the situation

Analyzing the Situation

  • Atmosphere

  • Timing

  • Physical Setting

  • Outside Forces

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Researching the issue

Researching the Issue

  • Be the best informed, most authoritative person in each interview

  • Investigate all aspects of the topic, including events that may contribute to the problem

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Researching the issue1

Researching the Issue

  • Sources

    • You must have the facts and know how to use them

  • Types of Evidence

    • Collect examples, both factual and hypothetical that illustrate your points

    • Gather statistics on relevant areas

    • Collect statements from acknowledged authorities, as well as testimonials

    • Look for comparisons and contrasts between situations

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Planning the interview

Planning the Interview

  • Determining your purpose

    • Be realistic but not defeatist

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the interview

Conducting the Interview

  • Selecting and Developing Main Points

    • Do not rely on a single reason or point

    • Too many points may overload the interviewee with information and cause him/her to become confused or bored

    • Stating your strongest points first or last have the same effect

    • Know the strength of each point and introduce it strategically

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Planning the interview1

Planning the Interview

  • Selecting Strategies

    • The five strategies (theories) for planning your interview are:

      • Identification Theory

      • Balance or Consistency Theory

      • Inoculation Theory

      • Induced Compliance Theory

      • Psychological Reactance Theory

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the interview1

Conducting the Interview

  • Opening the interview

    • Design your opening to gain attention, establish rapport, and motivate the interviewee

    • Adapt the opening to each interviewee and setting

    • Don’t rush or prolong the opening

    • Involve the interviewee from the start so as to foster an active role throughout the interaction

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the interview2

Conducting the Interview

  • Creating a Need or Desire

    • Develop one point at a time

    • Encourage interaction and interviewee involvement

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the interview3

Conducting the Interview

  • Using Questions

    • Information-Gathering Questions

    • Verification Questions

    • Encouraging Interaction Questions

    • Attention and Interest Questions

    • Agreement Questions

    • Objection Questions

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the interview4

Conducting the Interview

  • Adapting the Interview

    • The possible types of interviewees:

      • Indecisive, Uninterested Interviewees

      • Hostile Interviewees

        Yes-but approach

        Implicate approach

      • Closed-Minded and Authoritarian Interviewees

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the interview5

Conducting the Interview

  • Skeptical Interviewees

    • Shopping-Around Interviewees

    • Intelligent, Educated Interviewees

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the interview6

Conducting the Interview

  • Establishing Criteria

    • Establish a set of criteria with the interviewee for evaluating all possible solutions to the need that you have established

    • The situation can influence criteria

    • Agreed-upon criteria enable you to build on a foundation of agreements, provide an effective means of comparing solutions, and deal with objections

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the interview7

Conducting the Interview

  • Presenting the Solution

    • Details and Evaluation

      • If there are more than one solution, deal with them one at a time

      • Approach the solution in a positive, constructive, and enthusiastic manner

      • Help interviewees make decisions that are best for them at this time

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the interview8

Conducting the Interview

  • Handling Objections

    • Do not assume there are no objections just because the interviewee does not raise questions

    • Some common objections to persuasive interviews are:

      • Procrastination

      • Money

      • Tradition

      • Uncertain future

      • Need

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the interview9

Conducting the Interview

  • Minimize the Objection

    • Minimize the objection by restating it to seem less important or by comparing it to other weightier maters.

    • Provide evidence to lessen impact of objection.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the interview10

Conducting the Interview

  • Capitalize on the Objection

    • Use the objection to clarify your own points: review the proposal’s advantages, offer more evidence, and isolate the motive behind the objection

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Conducting the interview11

Conducting the Interview

  • Deny an Objection

    • Directly or indirectly deny an objection by offering new or more accurate information

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Conducting the interview12

Conducting the Interview

  • Confirm an Objection

    • Confirm an objection by agreeing with the interviewee

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Conducting the interview13

Conducting the Interview

  • Closing the Interview

    • Trial Close

    • Contract or Agreement

    • Leave-taking

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Summary2

Summary

  • Good persuasive interviews are ones in which both parties are actively involved.

  • Good persuasive interviews are honest pursuits conducted according to fundamental ethical guidelines

  • Good persuasive interviews are carefully researched, planned and structured, yet remain flexible enough to meet unforeseen reactions, objections, and arguments

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.