MARCH 11-14, 2011 EXAMPLES OF NO PLACE TO GO AND NO ONE TO RESCUE. JAPAN AFTER 2:46 PM, MARCH 11. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA. THE EARTHQUAKE IS NOW A M9.0 EVENT.
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MARCH 11-14, 2011EXAMPLES OF NO PLACE TO GO AND NO ONE TO RESCUE
AFTER 2:46 PM, MARCH 11
Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA
The MEGA-earthquake, which struck at 2:46 pm on Friday, March 11th, would have caused a disaster….
…BUT JAPAN was well prepared to cope with it.
Japan was well prepared to cope with a tsunami, but ….
This tsunami was devastating, inun-dating towns, im-mobilizing airports and roads, destroy-ing buildings, and treating everything (e.g., people, cars) in its path as debris.
ADVANCE WARNING AND VERTICAL EVACUATION ARE THE KEYS TO SURVIVING A TSUNAMI
ON MARCH 11TH, MANY PEOPLE HAD TOO LITTLE WARNING AND NO PLACE TO GO
NATURAL HAZARDS FOR WHICH EVACUATION IS TYPICAL
GOAL: MOVE PEOPLE OUT OF HARM’S WAY
HIGH BENEFIT/COST FOR SAVING LIVES, BUT LOW BENEFIT/COST FOR PROTECTING PROPERTY
CAUSES OF DAMAGE
HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVES
INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE RUNUP
VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE RUNUP
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS
INADEQUATE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATION
PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES AND WARNING SYSTEMS ARE A VITAL PART OF THE STORY.
KNOWING WHERE, WHEN, AND WHY A TSUNAMI OCCURS IS A VITAL PART OF THE ART AND SCIENCE OF INTELLIGENT EVACUATION.
THE ART AND SCIENCE OF KNOWING WHEN TO EVACUATE BEFORE A TSUNAMI WAVE ARRIVES AND WHERE TO GO CAN BE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH.
EVACUATION FOR A TSUNAMI IS COMPLICATED BY:1) THE SHORT TIME BETWEEN THE EARTHQUAKE AND THE TSUNAMI WAVE ARRIVAL, AND 2)DAMAGE AND LOSS OF FUNCTION TO BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE CAUSED BY THE EARTHQUAKE AND ITS AFTERSHOCK SEQUENCE.
YOU CAN’T OUTRUN OR DIVERT10-M-HIGH, DEBRIS-LADEN, OCEAN WAVE THAT ARRIVES WITH A HIGH VELOCITY (E.G., 30+ KM/HR) AND MOVES RAPIDLY INLAND FOR 2-3 KM, OR MORE
DETAILS OF THE STORY IN JAPAN
SEARCH AND RESCUE IS OFTEN THE LAST BEST CHANCE FOR SURVIVAL, BUT IT HAS LIMITS
ON MARCH 14TH, SOME SEARCH AND RESCUE TEAMS FOUND NO ONE TO RESCUE