History of Policing. PSCI 2481. Wyatt Earp. Ofc. Pete Malloy. A BRIEF HISTORY OF POLICING. Pre-Colonial Policing in England Colonial Policing in America Post-Revolutionary Policing The Rise of the Police Department (1790s-1840s) The Political Era
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History of Policing
Ofc. Pete Malloy
The Rise of the Police Department (1790s-1840s)
The “Service” Department (1840s-1920s)
Crime Fighting as Police Business (1930s-1970s)
Community-Problem Solving (1980s - ????)
“Era of voluntary peacekeeping”
1285 Statute of Winchester - Citizens are required to pursue criminals under the direction of the Constable.
1361 Justices of the Peace appointed by the Crown
Watchmen introduced by King Charles II (1649-1685).
1748 - Henry Fielding – author of “Tom Jones” takes over as JP of the Bow Street Court
(Of course, the settlers were hardly the cream of European society. Many were legal and religious castoffs.)
Chosen by the townspeople
Job - Suppress violations of community religious (moral) edicts, primarily victimless crimes. Keep drunks in line. Watch for gambling and prostitution.
The Night Watch
A patrol of “volunteers” supervised by a Constable
Report drunks and single women out after dark.
Duty was avoided by paying others to take your shift. (precursor of the paid police force)
London (“The British Model”)
1635: First night watch established.
1788: The word "police" appeared for the fist time, designating a specific office, "Inspector of Police".
1822: The Town of Boston became the City of Boston. Increases in the population & businesses created increased demand for police patrol.
1838: Law passed permitting day patrol. City had a Day Police and a Night Watch, which operated completely independently of one another.
1854: Boston Police Department established, structured after the model developed by Sir Robert Peeler.
1858: Telegraph system completed, linking central office and police stations.
1861: White cotton gloves worn by the officers for the first time. Thereafter, "full uniform" included the wearing of such gloves.
1872: The Great Boston Fire of November 9 and 10 which destroyed 776 buildings. The fire was discovered by a patrolman who was chasing boys on Lincoln Street.
1873: First mounted patrol established.
1903; First motor patrol wagon placed in service – a Stanley Streamer touring car operated by a chauffeur; the police officer sat on higher seat so that he could look over area’s back fences.
When the first NY police force began patrolling in the summer of 1845, they only had badges on their civilian clothing. The badges were 8 pointed stars with the seal of the City at the center and were made of stamped copper. The newspapers of the time referred to the new force as the "Star Police" but people seeing the shiny copper shields began to call the new force "Coppers" which was later shortened to "Cops."
Early Police Forces in America
Technology changes police operations:
The public image of police officers and police departments today
great a lotvery at all
2000 (Aug)60%30 9
1999 (Mar)64%29 7
1991 (Mar)60%32 7
VeryHigh Ave.Low Very HighLow
CongressmenI %10%43%32%11 %
Car SalesmenI %4%32%41 %18%
Excellent Only Fair Not Sure
or Good or Poor
Parole Boards22%57%21 %
Impact of Timeliness in Reporting Crime
While In Progress33%
1 Minute Afterwards 9%
10 Minutes Afterwards 5%
Reasons for Not Calling the Police
Private Matter Police WouldFear of
Didn’t Want Not Be EffectiveReprisal
CRIME To Bother Them
Sex Offenses*40%50% 5%
* Other than Rape