Improving health outcomes in rural honduras by working outside the medical comfort zone
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Improving Health Outcomes in Rural Honduras by Working Outside the Medical Comfort Zone. Douglas Stockman, MD Clinical Associate Professor Director, Global and Refugee Health Colleen Loo-Gross, MD, MPH PGY-2 Dept. Family Medicine, U. of Rochester. Activity Disclaimer.

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Improving health outcomes in rural honduras by working outside the medical comfort zone

Improving Health Outcomes in Rural Honduras by Working Outside the Medical Comfort Zone

Douglas Stockman, MD

Clinical Associate Professor

Director, Global and Refugee Health

Colleen Loo-Gross, MD, MPH

PGY-2

Dept. Family Medicine, U. of Rochester


Activity disclaimer
Activity Disclaimer

ACTIVITY DISCLAIMER

It is the policy of the AAFP that all individuals in a position to control content disclose any relationships with commercial interests upon nomination/invitation of participation. Disclosure documents are reviewed for potential conflicts of interest (COI), and if identified, conflicts are resolved prior to confirmation of participation. Only those participants who had no conflict of interest or who agreed to an identified resolution process prior to their participation were involved in this CME activity.

Douglas Stockman & Colleen Loo-Gross have indicated they have no relevant financial relationships to disclose.


Overview
Overview

  • Learning objectives

  • Questions for you

  • Who we are and what we do

  • Initial community assessment

  • Identified health problems

  • Focused interventions

  • Closing points


Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

  • 1. Appreciate the significance of non-medical factors contributing to ill health in less developed countries.

  • 2. Describe an approach to implementing non-clinical interventions in a global setting.

  • 3. Learn a sustainable, generational approach to global medical work through a longitudinal community partnership.

  • 4. Adapt and apply similar community-centered techniques in further global health interventions. 


Why gh work
Why GH Work?

  • Help the less fortunate

    • But how?

    • “Physician do no harm”

  • Feel good about oneself

  • Learn new things

  • Experience exotic cultures

  • Push on one’s comfort zone


Questions for you
Questions for You

  • Why do you work with under-served populations?

  • Do you help individuals or whole communities?

  • Do your efforts improve outcomes long term or short term?

  • What happens to your efforts once you leave?

  • What is the right balance between curative and preventive interventions?



Causes of ill health multifactorial
Causes of Ill Health Multifactorial

Disease and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. 2nd edition. Jamison DT, Feachem RG, Makgoba MW, et al., editors.Washington(DC): World Bank; 2006.


Gh program background
GH Program Background

  • FamMed residency training program

  • Have GH track that residents join

  • Partnered with Shoulder to Shoulder 2003

  • First trip to Southwest Honduras 2003

  • Partnered with one community, San Jose, 2005

  • Visit San Jose twice/yr, 2 wksper trip


Focused community assessment
Focused Community Assessment

  • Obtain a history – use multiple sources

  • Do a physical – walk about

  • Perform testing – if indicated, hard data

  • Create a differential – and rank order

  • Implement treatments – start with low hanging fruit

  • Reassess “patient’s” condition and efficacy of treatments – communities are dynamic


Example of initial history
Example of Initial History

  • Community meeting and questions

    • Who are they?

    • What are the 4 biggest issues for the community?

    • Describe health of community: common problems?

    • Available health & dental care?

    • Access to schools/education?

    • Access to food & water?

    • Past projects & outcomes?

    • Available local resources?


San jose problems
San Jose Problems

  • Water and sanitation

  • Limited education

  • Nutrition/malnutrition

  • Access to health care

  • Poverty

As a clinician, what do you do now? Ignore the top 3 problems and do what you know, or dig in and see if you can help?


Thoughts on interventions
Thoughts on Interventions

  • We are not the experts – they are

  • The best we can hope for is collaborating partners

  • This is their home, not ours. We go home to a cushy life. Any mistake, they live with

  • Their time and effort is valuable

  • Resources are VERY limited

  • Think generationally, if you hope for sustainable community improvement

  • Doug’s rule: 1 in 5 successes is good (PDSA)


Problem focused interventions
Problem-focused Interventions

  • Water

    • Piped water

    • Filters: SSF & PfP

    • Latrines

    • Pilas

    • Hand washing

  • Education

    • Teacher training

    • Student training

    • School supplies

    • Scholarships

  • Nutrition

    • Cook stoves

    • Piped water

    • Fish farms / Cash crops

  • Health care

    • Trained 2 CHWs

    • Revolving drug fund

    • Fluoride program

  • Poverty reduction

    • Microfinance

    • Handicrafts

Many others: train midwives, domestic violence, first aid kits schools, health education skits, improve fertilizer access, curative health care, and many more ……..


Focused example water
Focused Example: Water

  • Walk-abouts & focused questions

    • Very challenging: not much water & poor quality

    • Identified local resources/prior work and built on that

    • Went for low hanging fruit

    • Realized could help some people, not all

    • Created solutions that have good chance for sustainability

    • Provided materials and training, locals did all the work


Mis steps common
Mis-steps Common

  • Started with slow-sand filter

    • People prefer their own filter, not a central filter

  • Introduced Potters-for-Peace filter

    • Small, low cost home-level filter

  • Some are now requesting slow sand filter again

    • Higher output

    • More sustainable


Health benefits improved water
Health Benefits: Improved Water

  • Improve nutrition

    • Reduced calorie burn

    • Reduced diarrhea

  • Improve health

    • Reduced diarrhea

    • Reduced scabies, trachoma

  • Free up time for other activities

    • 1-3 hrs/day more time


Focused example poverty
Focused Example: Poverty

  • In absolute poverty there is no health

  • Mis-steps

    • Handicrafts

    • Cash crops

  • Microfinance

    • Area agency beyond reach of locals

    • Created our own microloan program (separate talk)

  • Fish farms (TBD)


Focused example poverty1
Focused Example: Poverty

Personal Profile

Maria Lopez is a 48 year old married woman with four children. Like most residents of Guanacaste, she is very poor and must survive on less than $2/day. We gave her a micro-loan to purchase materials to make tamales for sale at local gatherings. She reports back that she sells about 130 tamales per week and she can make a profit of up to $14/week. Through this increase in family income she has purchased chickens for eggs for the family to eat and has saved over $70 which represents the family's total savings for future needs.


Closing points
Closing Points

  • Community selection hard but important

  • Do not promise anything

  • Listen

  • You are an outsider trying to learn the real problems of a community – politics will always be a hurdle

  • Collaboration

  • Minimize financial inputs (poverty is real and harder than you imagine)

  • Think generational

  • Have fun!


Questions discussion

Questions /Discussion

www.sanjosepartners.org

www.urmc.rochester.edu/family-medicine/global-health


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