User experience modelling
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User Experience Modelling. UX Model. User Experience Model. Use cases describe the way a system will be used, but they don’t specify the system user interface.

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User Experience Modelling

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User experience modelling

User Experience Modelling

UX Model


User experience model

User Experience Model

  • Use cases describe the way a system will be used, but they don’t specify the system user interface.

  • User experience storyboards, based on use cases, add the process and techniques necessary to design and build a user interface that will meet requirements and allow users to exercise all the system behaviour described in use cases.

  • Also facilitate communication among the UI designers, and the UI architects and developers who design and implement the system.


User experience ux

User Experience (UX)

Term used to describe the team and the activities of those specialists responsible for keeping the user interface consistent with current paradigms and appropriate for the context in which the system is to run.

Some of the concerns of the UX team are architecturally significant (navigational flows) whereas others are purely cosmetic (colours, fonts). We concentrate on architecture here.


Information architect ia

Information Architect (IA)

The main member of the UX team is the information Architect (IA). The IA is concerned with the information content of the screens, their organisation and their navigation.

The principal artefact the IA is responsible for is the UX Guidelines Document. This document defines the overall ‘look and feel’ and provides a foundation of rules for defining new screens and flows.

The UX team consume Use Cases and, using prototypes for illustrating storyboards, produce the UX Guideline Document.


Artefacts of the ux model

Artefacts of the UX Model

  • Artefacts of the UX Model

    • Screens and content descriptions

    • Storyboard scenarios

    • Navigational paths through the screens

  • The UX model is a view of the system through its screens.

  • The architecturally significant properties of the screens and their navigational relationships are the main elements of the UX model.

  • UML Collaborations capture storyboard scenarios of the application in terms of the system’s screens.

  • The UX model’s storyboards are themselves mappings to the use case model.


1 screens

1. Screens


Screens

Screens

  • A screen is something that is presented to the user.

  • A screen contains the standard user interface infrastructure, such as menus and controls, as well as business relevant content.

  • Content is a combination of:

    • Static content – field names, titles, text and images that are constant for each user

    • Dynamic content – selected products, personal information, current status and other computed information

  • Web pages are mechanisms that build and produce screens, usually by server-side mechanisms such as ASP, JavaServer Pages, servlets and so on. A screen is simply what is presented to the user.


Overview of screen properties

Overview of Screen Properties

  • A screen’s properties and its behaviour with the user define the screen. These include:

  • Name and description

  • Structure

  • Static content

  • Business logic content

  • Managed content

  • Input fields and controls that accept user input

  • Descriptions of user interaction with the screen

Screen

Static content

Business logic content

Managed content

User input

Structure


Screen properties

Screen Properties

  • Name and description- indicates purpose and why the screen is important

  • Structure- describes how the screen’s information is laid out

  • Static content- all the embedded text and images that remain constant over time and with each user

  • Input fields and controls – identify what information the users can provide to the system through the interface


Dynamic content business and managed

Dynamic content (business and managed)

Dynamic content managed by business processes

  • Banner ads

  • Help and informational messages

  • Press releases

  • White papers

    Dynamic content managed and delivered by the application

  • Search results

  • Shopping cart line items

  • User preferences


Storyboards

Storyboards

  • When screens are combined and ordered they can describe use case scenarios.

  • The goal of these so called ‘storyboard scenarios’ is to express a typical use of the system through the eyes of the user.

  • Each scenario is an expression of a typical use of the system.

  • Early in development, the screens might simply be hand-drawn diagrams but later these evolve into HTML files which make their way into the application builds.


Navigational paths

Navigational Paths

  • Maps of the navigational paths express the structure of an application’s screens with their potential navigational pathways.

  • The maps express all the legal and expected pathways through the system


Ux modelling with uml

UX Modelling with UML

  • A screen is represented in a UML model with a <<screen>> stereotyped class.

  • A screens name is used as the class name and a screens description captured as the class description.

  • Static content such as labels and images are not architecturally significant and are not modelled.

  • Content layout is not modelled for the same reasons. (These belong in the UX Guidelines Document).

  • The simplest way to model dynamic content is to enumerate it as attributes of the stereotyped class.

  • Strict data types are not necessary, it is sufficient to identify the domain content by name (with elaboration in the accompanying documentation)


Modelling dynamic content

Modelling Dynamic Content

  • If there is really only one allowed instance of the content in a screen, it should be modelled as an attribute of the class (Total appears as a class attribute since there is only one occurrence of this value to be seen on the screen.

  • The content in the line items is variable.

<<Screen>>

Cart

Total

0..*

Line Items

Id

Name

Short Description

Quantity

Number Available

Thumbnail URL


Modelling screen behaviour

Modelling Screen Behaviour

The behaviour of interest in the UX model is the behaviour that the screen user can invoke on the screen to alter its state or the state of the system. (Behind the screen action in creating the screen are not generally of interest in the UX model although some operations (navigation for example) are sometimes included for clarity).

<<Screen>>

Cart

Total

Update quantity()

Delete line item()

0..*

Line Items

Id

Name

Short Description

Quantity

Number Available

Thumbnail URL


Modelling screen flow

Modelling Screen Flow

Catalog

<<Screen>>

Home Page

Featured product ID

Featured product Name

Featured product Price

Featured product description

Featured product thumbnail

select featured product

select catalog

<<Screen>>

Categories

0..*

Previous

Category item

Id

Name

Description

Image URL

Category

Category ID

Category name

Category description

Category image

scroll forward

scroll backward

select product

<<Screen>>

Subcategories

0..*

Next

What might appear

in the Product Screen?

Featured Product

Product

<<Screen>>


Modelling screen flow1

Modelling Screen Flow

  • Model associations between classes (screens).

  • The influence of the browser’s back button is of no interest here.

  • Navigational paths are limited to the expected paths, not every possible one.


User input

User Input

  • In the UX model, it is important to capture each named input field and, optionally, the type of control used to collect it.

  • Input forms are modelled with a separate <<inputform>> stereotyped class.

  • This becomes a composite aggregate of the screen class.

  • Fields are captured as attributes and can be optionally typed with the type of input control they are.


User input1

User Input

  • In this example:

    • The Input Form Modelled as Contained Class

    • The user input to the search form does not determine the next screen to be navigated.

<<Screen>>

Catalog

Categories

0..*

Category Item

Id

Name

Description

Image URL

<<input form>>

Search Form

Keywords: Text


User input2

User Input

Here, the user input to the search form determines the next screen to be navigated.

<<Screen>>

Payment

Information

<<input form>>

Successful

<<Screen>>

Incomplete

<<Screen>>

Payment Info

Order Summary

Missing Data

Error

<<Screen>>

Processing Error


Screen compartments

Screen Compartments

  • It is becoming common for I.A.’s to define screens and the look and feel as a whole- in terms of screen compartments, or sub screens.

  • Each has a dedicated purpose that is expected to combine with other compartments to make a whole screen.

  • The main of screen compartments advantage is reuse.

  • They are modelled with a <<screen compartment>> sterotyped class.

  • They are modelled as shared aggregates (just like dynamic content).


Screen compartments example

Screen Compartments Example


Storyboard construction

Storyboard Construction

  • In a web application, the screens are the individual boards that, when strung together, tell a story of the application.

  • A UML storyboard is a collaboration and is best captured by collaboration diagrams.

  • The UML storyboard maps to a Use Case.

  • Steps:

    • Illustrate navigation map (sometimes called a Participants Diagram) showing all the classes participating in the use case being storyboarded e.g the browse catalog use case. Remember, not all navigation paths may be shown if it complicates the diagram.

    • Construct a sequence diagram for the browse catalog use case.

    • Express the storyboard scenario as a collaboration diagram.


Step 1

STEP 1

Illustrate navigation map


User experience modelling

Catalog

Select

Home Page

Featured product ID

Featured product Name

Featured product Price

Featured product description

Featured product thumbnail

select featured product

select catalog

<<Screen>>

<<Screen>>

<<input form>>

Search Form

Keywords: Text

Categories

0..*

Previous

Category item

Id

Name

Description

Image URL

Category

Category ID

Category name

Category description

Category image

scroll forward

scroll backward

select product

<<Screen>>

Subcategories

0..*

Next

Line Item

ID

Name

Description

Quantity

Number available

Thumbnail URL

Featured Product

Product

select

<<Screen>>

Cart

Total

Remove

<<Screen>>

LineItemsForm

RemoveProduct():Checkbox

Quantity():Text

<<input form>>


Step 2

Step 2

Construct a sequence diagram


User experience modelling

:Home Page :Catalog :Category :Product :Cart

Navigate

Customer navigates to

eRetail site

Catalog

Customer selects the

product catalog

Navigate

Customer selects

a category

Select category

Navigate

Scroll forward

Customer scrolls forward

Then backward through the

List of products

Scroll backward

Select product

Customer selects a product

The system responds with

a detailed product description

Navigate

Select product

Navigate


Step 3

STEP 3

Express the storyboard scenario as a collaboration diagram


User experience modelling

1.

<<Screen>>

Home Page

<<Screen>>

Electronics: Catalog

2.

4.

3.

<<Screen>>

Cameras:Category

<<Screen>>

SonyP210:Product

<<Screen>>

Cart

5.

6.

<<Screen>>

Cameras:Category

<<Screen>>

CanonR45:Product

7.

8.

9.

<<Screen>>

Cameras:Category

<<Screen>>

Kodak K23:Product

<<Screen>>

Cart

10.


User experience modelling

Problem Description

User needs

Many requirements will

be resolved through

interaction with actors

The experience of

the user during

Interactions needs

to be modelled

Req

Spec.

Use Cases

UX Model

Analysis Models: To model the user/applications domain

*

*

*

*

  • Class Diagrams

  • Object Diagrams

  • Sequence Diagrams

  • Collaboration Diagrams

  • Activity Diagrams

  • Class Diagrams

  • Activity Diagrams

  • Sequence diagrams

  • Collaboration diagrams

  • Use Case Diagrams

  • Use Case text

  • Activity Diagrams

  • Sequence diagrams

Templates


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