Information processing in management and marketing personality styles and meaning profiles
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Information Processing in Management and Marketing: Personality Styles and Meaning Profiles. Shulamith Kreitler, Ph.D. Department of Psychology Tel-Aviv University Tel-Aviv, Israel. Tel +972-3-5227185 Fax +972-3-5225371 E-mail [email protected]

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Information processing in management and marketing personality styles and meaning profiles

Information Processing in Management and Marketing:Personality Styles and Meaning Profiles

Shulamith Kreitler, Ph.D.

Department of Psychology

Tel-Aviv University

Tel-Aviv, Israel

Tel +972-3-5227185

Fax +972-3-5225371

E-mail [email protected]


In management and marketing information processing plays a role in
In management and marketing information processing plays a role in:

  • The daily work of the manager who has to deal with large amounts of information

  • The act of communication which consists in the exchange of information between two or more individuals

  • The act of purchasing, i.e., processes involved in the decision to buy, the buying and the evaluation afterwards.


Psychosemantics role in:MEANING

Cybernetics

INFORMATION


  • Purpose: role in:

    • To present a theory and methodology, based on the meaning system, that enable assessing information processing in management and marketing

  • Structure of talk:

    • Presentation of the meaning system

    • Application of the meaning system to assessing meaning styles of individuals in management and in marketing

    • Application of the meaning system to promoting purchasing


A presentation of the meaning system

A. role in:Presentation of the meaning system

Developed by Kreitler and Kreitler, since 1968 onward


The system of meaning kreitler kreitler

The system of meaning role in:(Kreitler & Kreitler)

Cognition is a system that works with meaning, namely, it responds to meanings, and produces, elaborates, stores, transforms and uses meanings.


Assumptions underlying the meaning system
Assumptions Underlying the role in:Meaning System

  • Meaning is communicable

  • Meaning is complex

  • Meaning includes a personal-subjective part and an interpersonally-shared part


Meaning is a pattern of cognitive contents focused on a referent
Meaning role in: is a pattern of cognitive contents focused on a referent.


A role in:referent can be an external or internal stimulus, a situation, an event, an individual, a product, the act of purchasing, etc.


The role in:cognitive contents are designed to express or communicate information that would enable identifying the referent, handling it, responding to it, or dealing with it within the psychological domain.


The cognitive content and the referent form together the meaning unit

Referent role in:– Meaning Value

The cognitive content and the referent form together the meaning unit.

Examples: Hong Kong – is a wonderful cityAn airport – serves for transportation


The cognitive content is called meaning value because it fulfills the role of expressing or communicating meaning.


The meaning unit is characterized in terms of the following 5 sets of variables

Referent fulfills the role of expressing or communicating meaning.– Meaning Value

The meaning unit is characterized in terms of the following 5 sets of variables:

Meaning Dimensions

Shifts in Referent

Types of Relation

Forms of Expression

Forms of Relation


The psychosemantic method consists in coding the responses in terms of the following categories
The psychosemantic method consists in coding the responses in terms of the following categories:

  • Meaning dimensions: Content categories, such as Feelings and Emotions, Actions, Sensory Qualities (color, shape, etc.), Size, Weight

  • Types of Relation: Relational categories, such as Attributive, Comparative, Illustrative-Exemplifying, Metaphoric-Symbolic.

  • Forms of Relation : Formative categories, such as Positive or Negative, Simple or Complex (e.g., Conjunctive, Disjunctive), Absolute or Modified (e.g., always, sometimes)

  • Shifts of Referent : Categories of shifts to other constructs, such as from Ocean to Lake, from House to Windows

  • Forms of Expression : Categories of means of expression, such as words, drawings, movements, denoted objects


Examples of meaning variables

Meaning Dimensions in terms of the following categories:

Range of inclusion

Material

Functions

Feelings & Emotions

Types of Relations

Attributive

Comparative

Exemplifying-illustrative

Metaphoric-symbolic

Forms of Relation

Positive, Negative

Conjunctive, Disjunctive

Normative

Referent Shifts

Identical to input

Part of input

Association

Forms of Expression

Verbal

Gestural

Graphic

Examples of Meaning Variables


Meaning test

Meaning Test in terms of the following categories:

Instructions: Communicate to another person the meaning (interpersonally-shared and personal) of a presented set of stimuli, using any means of communication considered adequate.

Stimuli: Street, Bicycle, Sea (ocean), to take, to kill, Telephone, etc.


Examples of coded responses
Examples of Coded Responses in terms of the following categories:


Meaning profile

Meaning Profile in terms of the following categories:

Frequencies (proportions) of individual’s use of each meaning variable in responding to the stimuli of the meaning test.


Functions of meaning
Functions of Meaning in terms of the following categories:

  • In regard to cognition

  • In regard to personality

  • In regard to states of consciousness

  • In regard to behavior

  • In regard to physiological responses


Meaning variables and cognition

Cognitive contents, information in terms of the following categories:

Meaning values

Meaning Variables and Cognition

Cognitive acts, structural schemas

Cognitive processes

Meaning variables

Meaning profiles

Meaning


1 meaning values and cognitive contents

1. Meaning Values and Cognitive Contents in terms of the following categories:

Meaning values correspond to cognitive contents and information.

Examples:

When the individual’s meaning profile shows a high frequency of the meaning dimension Locational Qualities, that individual may be expected to have a lot of labels, words, information in the domain of location, places, routes.


2 meaning values and cognitive processes

2. Meaning Values and Cognitive Processes in terms of the following categories:

Cognitive processes correspond to specific meaning variables or combinations of meaning variables.

Examples:

Shifting from one theme to another– High frequency of referent shifts of medium degree (e.g., shifting to previous response, or to superordinate referent)

Associations– High number of meaning values (absolute and especially relative), high number of different shifts of referent

Abstracting–High frequency of meaning dimension Contextual Allocation


3 meaning profiles and cognitive acts

3. Meaning Profiles and Cognitive Acts in terms of the following categories:

Cognitive acts correspond to specific combinations of meaning variables that constitute complete profiles.


Meaning profile of planning

Meaning Dimensions in terms of the following categories:

Contextual allocation

Range of inclusion

Actions

Manner of operation

Antecedents & causes

Consequences & results

Range of application

Structure

Quantity & numbers

Locational qualities

Temporal qualities

Sensory qualities (-)

Judgments & evaluations

Types of Relation

Attributive

Metaphoric-symbolic (-)

Forms of Relation

Propositional, positive & negative

Partial

Conjunctive

Disjunctive

Shifts of Referent

Close shifts: Parts, Former responses, Grammatical variations

Medium shifts: Input modified by addition, Combination of several former responses

Distant shifts (-) : Associations, Labels

Forms of Expression

Verbal, Verbal desc???? By drawings

Meaning Profile of Planning


Further cognitive acts whose meaning profiles were identified
Further cognitive acts whose meaning profiles were identified:

  • Memory for verbal material / names / faces

  • Analogical thinking

  • Inventive thinking

  • Creativity

  • Exploration and curiosity

  • Various cognitive styles (e.g., impulsiveness vs. reflectivity, monitoring vs. blunting)


Meaning variables and personality

Meaning Variables and Personality identified:

Each personality trait corresponds to a profile of meaning variables


Example meaning profile of extraversion

Meaning Dimensions identified:

Contextual allocation

Range of inclusion

Actions

Results & Consequences (-)

Size & dimensions

Quantity & numbers

Temporal qualities (-)

Possessions

Sensory qualities (-) (experienced by referent)

Sensory qualities (of object)

Judgments & evaluations (-)

Types of Relation

Attributive

Metaphoric (-)

Forms of Relation

Positive

Referent Shifts

Associations (-)

Example: Meaning profile of extraversion

[Source: Kreitler, S. & Kreitler, H. (1990). The Cognitive Foundations of Personality Traits. New York: Plenum]


For example there are meaning profiles corresponding to
For example, identified:There are meaning profiles corresponding to:

  • Leadership (Fiedler’s LPC)

  • Alexithymia

  • Narcissism

  • Tendency to experience anxiety

  • Tendency to apply different defense mechanisms, such as repression, denial, projection


Two modes of meaning

Personal-Subjective identified:

Exemplifying-Illustrative

Metaphoric-Symbolic

Interpersonally-Shared

Attributive

Comparative

Meaning Variables and States of Consciousness

Two Modes of Meaning

  • Effects on:

    • Gestalt perception

    • Creativity

    • Fantasy

    • Logical reasoning

[Source: Kreitler, S. (1999). Consciousness and meaning. In J. Singer & P. Salovey (Eds.), At Play in the Fields of Consciousness: Essays in Honor of Jerome L. Singer. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 175-206)]


Training meaning variables
Training Meaning Variables identified:

Principles of the Training

  • Determining the meaning variables targetted for training

  • Training each targetted meaning variable separately

  • Strengthening the targetted meaning variable

  • Elaborating the meaning of the targetted meaning variable

  • Explaining the use of the targetted meaning variable


B. identified:Application of the Meaning System to Assessing Meaning Profiles of Individuals in Management and Marketing


Administering the Meaning Test to an individual enables determining the individual’s Meaning Profile


Major uses of the meaning profile assessment
Major Uses of the Meaning Profile Assessment determining the individual

  • Evaluation of personnel

  • Selection of personnel

  • Training of personnel


Grasping and Comprehending Information determining the individual

Getting Information

Meaning Profile

Communicating with Others

Cognitive Acts

Personality Traits

Personality Disposition & Emotional Tendencies


Correspondence between meaning profiles
Correspondence between Meaning Profiles determining the individual

Possibility to determine to what extent an individual’s meaning profile :

  • Corresponds to the meaning profile of some standard, e.g., of the “good manager”, “creative manager”

  • Corresponds to the meaning profile of the individuals (one or more) with whom he/she is to cooperate


Meaning Dimensions determining the individual

Contextual allocation

Function

Manner of operation

Consequences

Causes (-)

Domain of application

State

Types of Relation

Attributive

Comparative – Difference

Exemplifying (-)

Metaphoric (-)

Forms of Relation

Positive

Partial (not universal)

Conjunctive

Disjunctive

Normative

Desired (-)

Referent Shifts

Close shifts

Medium shifts

Distant shifts (-)

Meaning Profile of the “Good” Manager(based on the meaning variables common to 12 managers in different high-tech firms, evaluated by their peers and supervisors)


Index of similarity in regard to meaning profiles
Index of Similarity in regard to Meaning Profiles: determining the individual

  • Steps of Construction:

  • Determine the meaning profiles of two individuals (or one individual and “standard” profile)

  • Procedure A

  • Correlate the two profiles. The Spearman Product-Moment Coefficient yields the measure of similarity

  • Procedure B

  • For each meaning variable determine whether its score is above the group’s mean (for “positive” variables) or below (for negative variables)

  • Count the number of variables in the meaning profiles that are both above or below the group’s mean. The number yields a gross measure of similarity.

Note. The same procedures can be applied for more than two meaning profiles



Selection of personnel

Selection determining the individual of Personnel

The meaning profile enables selecting, for the organization or for particular positions in the organization, individuals with desired tendencies in regard to cognition, personality and behavior.


Procedures of selection
Procedures of selection determining the individual

  • Determineor retrieve the meaning profile corresponding to the cognitive act or personality trait or behavior of interest

  • Determine the individual’s meaning profile

  • Compute the index of similarity between the individual’s meaning profile and the meaning profile corresponding to the desired cognitive act, personality trait or behavior


Training of personnel
Training determining the individual of Personnel

  • Steps in the training procedure

  • Determine or retrieve the meaning profile corresponding to the cognitive, personality or behavior tendency of interest

  • Determine the individual’s meaning profile

  • Compare the individual’s meaning profile to the meaning profile of the desired tendency and determine in which meaning variables it deviates

  • Apply the training process with the individual in regard to the targetted meaning variables


C application of the meaning system to promoting purchasing
C. determining the individualApplication of the Meaning system to Promoting Purchasing


Meaning Profile of the determining the individual“good” purchaser

Meaning of purchasing the item


Means for promoting purchasing
Means for promoting purchasing: determining the individual

  • Procedure A: Focus on the meaning profile of the “good” purchaser

  • Determine the meaning profile of the “good” (desired) purchaser

    Criteria (examples):

    amounts of purchasing

    Frequency of purchasing

    Range of purchasing

    Selectivity of purchasing

  • Evoke the relevant meaning variables when advertising items or presenting them on display for purchasing


Meaning Profile of Purchaser determining the individual

Displayed Item

Meaning Dimension

Judgments and Evaluation

Buying it will stimulate positive evaluations of the purchaser



Conclusions
Conclusions of items

  • The meaning system provides concepts and tools for assessing processes underlying cognitive, emotional, personality and behavior tendencies.

  • The major concepts are meaning units, referent, meaning value, and meaning variable.

  • The major tool is the Meaning Test that yields the meaning profile.

  • The meaning system enables improving the Evaluation, Selection and Training of personnel in management.

  • The meaning system provides means for promoting purchasing by focusing on the purchaser or on the meaning of the items to be purchased and of the act of purchasing.


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