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Information Processing in Management and Marketing: Personality Styles and Meaning Profiles. Shulamith Kreitler, Ph.D. Department of Psychology Tel-Aviv University Tel-Aviv, Israel. Tel +972-3-5227185 Fax +972-3-5225371 E-mail [email protected]

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information processing in management and marketing personality styles and meaning profiles

Information Processing in Management and Marketing:Personality Styles and Meaning Profiles

Shulamith Kreitler, Ph.D.

Department of Psychology

Tel-Aviv University

Tel-Aviv, Israel

Tel +972-3-5227185

Fax +972-3-5225371

E-mail [email protected]

in management and marketing information processing plays a role in
In management and marketing information processing plays a role in:
  • The daily work of the manager who has to deal with large amounts of information
  • The act of communication which consists in the exchange of information between two or more individuals
  • The act of purchasing, i.e., processes involved in the decision to buy, the buying and the evaluation afterwards.
slide3

PsychosemanticsMEANING

Cybernetics

INFORMATION

slide4
Purpose:
    • To present a theory and methodology, based on the meaning system, that enable assessing information processing in management and marketing
  • Structure of talk:
    • Presentation of the meaning system
    • Application of the meaning system to assessing meaning styles of individuals in management and in marketing
    • Application of the meaning system to promoting purchasing
a presentation of the meaning system

A. Presentation of the meaning system

Developed by Kreitler and Kreitler, since 1968 onward

the system of meaning kreitler kreitler

The system of meaning (Kreitler & Kreitler)

Cognition is a system that works with meaning, namely, it responds to meanings, and produces, elaborates, stores, transforms and uses meanings.

assumptions underlying the meaning system
Assumptions Underlying the Meaning System
  • Meaning is communicable
  • Meaning is complex
  • Meaning includes a personal-subjective part and an interpersonally-shared part
slide9
A referent can be an external or internal stimulus, a situation, an event, an individual, a product, the act of purchasing, etc.
slide10

The cognitive contents are designed to express or communicate information that would enable identifying the referent, handling it, responding to it, or dealing with it within the psychological domain.

the cognitive content and the referent form together the meaning unit

Referent – Meaning Value

The cognitive content and the referent form together the meaning unit.

Examples: Hong Kong – is a wonderful cityAn airport – serves for transportation

slide12
The cognitive content is called meaning value because it fulfills the role of expressing or communicating meaning.
the meaning unit is characterized in terms of the following 5 sets of variables

Referent – Meaning Value

The meaning unit is characterized in terms of the following 5 sets of variables:

Meaning Dimensions

Shifts in Referent

Types of Relation

Forms of Expression

Forms of Relation

the psychosemantic method consists in coding the responses in terms of the following categories
The psychosemantic method consists in coding the responses in terms of the following categories:
  • Meaning dimensions: Content categories, such as Feelings and Emotions, Actions, Sensory Qualities (color, shape, etc.), Size, Weight
  • Types of Relation: Relational categories, such as Attributive, Comparative, Illustrative-Exemplifying, Metaphoric-Symbolic.
  • Forms of Relation : Formative categories, such as Positive or Negative, Simple or Complex (e.g., Conjunctive, Disjunctive), Absolute or Modified (e.g., always, sometimes)
  • Shifts of Referent : Categories of shifts to other constructs, such as from Ocean to Lake, from House to Windows
  • Forms of Expression : Categories of means of expression, such as words, drawings, movements, denoted objects
examples of meaning variables
Meaning Dimensions

Range of inclusion

Material

Functions

Feelings & Emotions

Types of Relations

Attributive

Comparative

Exemplifying-illustrative

Metaphoric-symbolic

Forms of Relation

Positive, Negative

Conjunctive, Disjunctive

Normative

Referent Shifts

Identical to input

Part of input

Association

Forms of Expression

Verbal

Gestural

Graphic

Examples of Meaning Variables
meaning test

Meaning Test

Instructions: Communicate to another person the meaning (interpersonally-shared and personal) of a presented set of stimuli, using any means of communication considered adequate.

Stimuli: Street, Bicycle, Sea (ocean), to take, to kill, Telephone, etc.

meaning profile

Meaning Profile

Frequencies (proportions) of individual’s use of each meaning variable in responding to the stimuli of the meaning test.

functions of meaning
Functions of Meaning
  • In regard to cognition
  • In regard to personality
  • In regard to states of consciousness
  • In regard to behavior
  • In regard to physiological responses
meaning variables and cognition

Cognitive contents, information

Meaning values

Meaning Variables and Cognition

Cognitive acts, structural schemas

Cognitive processes

Meaning variables

Meaning profiles

Meaning

1 meaning values and cognitive contents

1. Meaning Values and Cognitive Contents

Meaning values correspond to cognitive contents and information.

Examples:

When the individual’s meaning profile shows a high frequency of the meaning dimension Locational Qualities, that individual may be expected to have a lot of labels, words, information in the domain of location, places, routes.

2 meaning values and cognitive processes

2. Meaning Values and Cognitive Processes

Cognitive processes correspond to specific meaning variables or combinations of meaning variables.

Examples:

Shifting from one theme to another– High frequency of referent shifts of medium degree (e.g., shifting to previous response, or to superordinate referent)

Associations– High number of meaning values (absolute and especially relative), high number of different shifts of referent

Abstracting–High frequency of meaning dimension Contextual Allocation

3 meaning profiles and cognitive acts

3. Meaning Profiles and Cognitive Acts

Cognitive acts correspond to specific combinations of meaning variables that constitute complete profiles.

meaning profile of planning
Meaning Dimensions

Contextual allocation

Range of inclusion

Actions

Manner of operation

Antecedents & causes

Consequences & results

Range of application

Structure

Quantity & numbers

Locational qualities

Temporal qualities

Sensory qualities (-)

Judgments & evaluations

Types of Relation

Attributive

Metaphoric-symbolic (-)

Forms of Relation

Propositional, positive & negative

Partial

Conjunctive

Disjunctive

Shifts of Referent

Close shifts: Parts, Former responses, Grammatical variations

Medium shifts: Input modified by addition, Combination of several former responses

Distant shifts (-) : Associations, Labels

Forms of Expression

Verbal, Verbal desc???? By drawings

Meaning Profile of Planning
further cognitive acts whose meaning profiles were identified
Further cognitive acts whose meaning profiles were identified:
  • Memory for verbal material / names / faces
  • Analogical thinking
  • Inventive thinking
  • Creativity
  • Exploration and curiosity
  • Various cognitive styles (e.g., impulsiveness vs. reflectivity, monitoring vs. blunting)
meaning variables and personality

Meaning Variables and Personality

Each personality trait corresponds to a profile of meaning variables

example meaning profile of extraversion
Meaning Dimensions

Contextual allocation

Range of inclusion

Actions

Results & Consequences (-)

Size & dimensions

Quantity & numbers

Temporal qualities (-)

Possessions

Sensory qualities (-) (experienced by referent)

Sensory qualities (of object)

Judgments & evaluations (-)

Types of Relation

Attributive

Metaphoric (-)

Forms of Relation

Positive

Referent Shifts

Associations (-)

Example: Meaning profile of extraversion

[Source: Kreitler, S. & Kreitler, H. (1990). The Cognitive Foundations of Personality Traits. New York: Plenum]

for example there are meaning profiles corresponding to
For example,There are meaning profiles corresponding to:
  • Leadership (Fiedler’s LPC)
  • Alexithymia
  • Narcissism
  • Tendency to experience anxiety
  • Tendency to apply different defense mechanisms, such as repression, denial, projection
two modes of meaning
Personal-Subjective

Exemplifying-Illustrative

Metaphoric-Symbolic

Interpersonally-Shared

Attributive

Comparative

Meaning Variables and States of Consciousness

Two Modes of Meaning
  • Effects on:
    • Gestalt perception
    • Creativity
    • Fantasy
    • Logical reasoning

[Source: Kreitler, S. (1999). Consciousness and meaning. In J. Singer & P. Salovey (Eds.), At Play in the Fields of Consciousness: Essays in Honor of Jerome L. Singer. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum (pp. 175-206)]

training meaning variables
Training Meaning Variables

Principles of the Training

  • Determining the meaning variables targetted for training
  • Training each targetted meaning variable separately
  • Strengthening the targetted meaning variable
  • Elaborating the meaning of the targetted meaning variable
  • Explaining the use of the targetted meaning variable
slide32
B. Application of the Meaning System to Assessing Meaning Profiles of Individuals in Management and Marketing
slide33
Administering the Meaning Test to an individual enables determining the individual’s Meaning Profile
major uses of the meaning profile assessment
Major Uses of the Meaning Profile Assessment
  • Evaluation of personnel
  • Selection of personnel
  • Training of personnel
slide35

Grasping and Comprehending Information

Getting Information

Meaning Profile

Communicating with Others

Cognitive Acts

Personality Traits

Personality Disposition & Emotional Tendencies

correspondence between meaning profiles
Correspondence between Meaning Profiles

Possibility to determine to what extent an individual’s meaning profile :

  • Corresponds to the meaning profile of some standard, e.g., of the “good manager”, “creative manager”
  • Corresponds to the meaning profile of the individuals (one or more) with whom he/she is to cooperate
slide37
Meaning Dimensions

Contextual allocation

Function

Manner of operation

Consequences

Causes (-)

Domain of application

State

Types of Relation

Attributive

Comparative – Difference

Exemplifying (-)

Metaphoric (-)

Forms of Relation

Positive

Partial (not universal)

Conjunctive

Disjunctive

Normative

Desired (-)

Referent Shifts

Close shifts

Medium shifts

Distant shifts (-)

Meaning Profile of the “Good” Manager(based on the meaning variables common to 12 managers in different high-tech firms, evaluated by their peers and supervisors)

index of similarity in regard to meaning profiles
Index of Similarity in regard to Meaning Profiles:
  • Steps of Construction:
  • Determine the meaning profiles of two individuals (or one individual and “standard” profile)
  • Procedure A
  • Correlate the two profiles. The Spearman Product-Moment Coefficient yields the measure of similarity
  • Procedure B
  • For each meaning variable determine whether its score is above the group’s mean (for “positive” variables) or below (for negative variables)
  • Count the number of variables in the meaning profiles that are both above or below the group’s mean. The number yields a gross measure of similarity.

Note. The same procedures can be applied for more than two meaning profiles

selection of personnel

Selection of Personnel

The meaning profile enables selecting, for the organization or for particular positions in the organization, individuals with desired tendencies in regard to cognition, personality and behavior.

procedures of selection
Procedures of selection
  • Determineor retrieve the meaning profile corresponding to the cognitive act or personality trait or behavior of interest
  • Determine the individual’s meaning profile
  • Compute the index of similarity between the individual’s meaning profile and the meaning profile corresponding to the desired cognitive act, personality trait or behavior
training of personnel
Training of Personnel
  • Steps in the training procedure
  • Determine or retrieve the meaning profile corresponding to the cognitive, personality or behavior tendency of interest
  • Determine the individual’s meaning profile
  • Compare the individual’s meaning profile to the meaning profile of the desired tendency and determine in which meaning variables it deviates
  • Apply the training process with the individual in regard to the targetted meaning variables
slide44

Meaning Profile of the “good” purchaser

Meaning of purchasing the item

means for promoting purchasing
Means for promoting purchasing:
  • Procedure A: Focus on the meaning profile of the “good” purchaser
  • Determine the meaning profile of the “good” (desired) purchaser

Criteria (examples):

amounts of purchasing

Frequency of purchasing

Range of purchasing

Selectivity of purchasing

  • Evoke the relevant meaning variables when advertising items or presenting them on display for purchasing
slide46

Meaning Profile of Purchaser

Displayed Item

Meaning Dimension

Judgments and Evaluation

Buying it will stimulate positive evaluations of the purchaser

conclusions
Conclusions
  • The meaning system provides concepts and tools for assessing processes underlying cognitive, emotional, personality and behavior tendencies.
  • The major concepts are meaning units, referent, meaning value, and meaning variable.
  • The major tool is the Meaning Test that yields the meaning profile.
  • The meaning system enables improving the Evaluation, Selection and Training of personnel in management.
  • The meaning system provides means for promoting purchasing by focusing on the purchaser or on the meaning of the items to be purchased and of the act of purchasing.
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