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25. The Urinary System. Which of the following is not a function of the kidneys?. Bile production Excretion of excess ions Release of erythropoietin Activation of vitamin D. Urine collection occurs in the _______ of the kidney. cortex medulla columns pelvis.

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The Urinary System

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25

TheUrinary System


Which of the following is not a function of the kidneys?

  • Bile production

  • Excretion of excess ions

  • Release of erythropoietin

  • Activation of vitamin D


Urine collection occurs in the _______ of the kidney.

  • cortex

  • medulla

  • columns

  • pelvis


What fraction of the cardiac output is delivered to the kidneys each minute?

  • 1/1000

  • 1/2

  • 1/4

  • 3/4


The blood-filtering structure of the kidney is called the __________.

  • glomerular capsule

  • renal tubule

  • glomerulus

  • nephron


The urine-forming units of the kidney are the __________.

  • glomerular capsules

  • renal tubules

  • glomeruli

  • nephrons


Based on the histology of a renal tubule, which section would be most severely inhibited if simple squamous epithelium were damaged?

  • Proximal convoluted tubule

  • Thin segment of the loop of Henle

  • Thick segment of the loop of Henle

  • Distal convoluted tubule


The vasa recta are associated with which structures in the kidney?

  • Glomeruli

  • Juxtamedullary nephrons

  • Afferent arterioles

  • Cortical nephrons


The juxtaglomerular apparatus is made of ______ cells from the afferent arteriole and the _________ cells of the DCT.

  • mesangial; filtration

  • filtration; mesangial

  • granular; macula densa

  • macula densa; granular


Which of the following factors contribute(s) to the higher filtration rate in the glomerular capillaries compared with other capillary beds?

  • The glomerular capillaries are fenestrated.

  • The diameter of the efferent arteriole is smaller than the diameter of the afferent arteriole.

  • The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule is very porous.

  • All of the above contribute.


Which of the following substances would not be found in normal filtrate?

  • Uric acid

  • Urea

  • Proteins

  • Creatinine


How would eating a high-protein diet affect filtration?

  • Due to higher colloid osmotic pressure in the glomerular blood, the net filtration pressure would be lower and less filtrate would form.

  • Too much protein in the diet would abolish all filtration.

  • High blood pressure from increased plasma proteins would increase filtration to twice its normal rate.

  • Filtration would be unchanged, but the kidneys would suffer damage.


What type of response by the afferent arterioles would you expect if blood pressure increased?

  • The afferent arterioles would constrict.

  • The afferent arterioles would dilate.

  • The afferent arterioles would stimulate renin release.

  • The afferent arterioles would not respond to blood pressure changes.


Autoregulatory mechanisms are most effective:

  • for renin secretion.

  • when the arterial pressure drops below 80 mm Hg.

  • at releasing epinephrine.

  • when the arterial pressure is between 80 and 180 mm Hg.


Extrinsic controls regulate glomerular filtration rate as a means of regulating ________.

  • systemic blood pressure

  • cardiac output

  • urine formation

  • red blood cell production


Which of the following general functions can be assigned to the renin-angiotensin system?

  • Water conservation

  • Blood pressure elevation

  • Lowering blood sodium levels

  • Both a and b


Of the filtered solutes, what percentage is reabsorbed by the renal tubule?

  • 1%

  • 50%

  • 99%

  • 100%


What would be the effect on urine output if sodium channels in the tubule cells were inhibited?

  • The volume would increase.

  • The volume would decrease

  • The volume would decrease by half the sodium concentration.

  • The volume would decrease by one-tenth the sodium concentration.


Why is glucose in the urine an indicator of diabetes mellitus?

  • When blood glucose is very high, the filtered glucose occupies all the transport carriers and it is no longer reabsorbed.

  • Because diabetics cannot regulate their glucose.

  • When blood glucose is low, it is excreted in the urine.

  • Because diabetics have high levels of glucagon.


Why do high levels of potassium stimulate aldosterone secretion?

  • Aldosterone stimulates potassium secretion at potassium-specific pumps.

  • Aldosterone stimulates the sodium-potassium pump to reabsorb sodium while simultaneously secreting potassium.

  • Aldosterone stimulates the sodium-potassium pump to secrete sodium while simultaneously reabsorbing potassium.

  • High levels of potassium accompany high levels of sodium.


Which of the following processes in urine formation is important for regulating blood pH?

  • Secretion

  • Reabsorption

  • Filtration

  • Countercurrent multiplication


Drinking too much alcohol results in a headache the next day. Why does this happen?

  • Alcohol stimulates pain receptors in the brain.

  • Alcohol stimulates sodium reabsorption.

  • Alcohol stimulates aldosterone secretion.

  • Alcohol inhibits ADH secretion.


Why is the osmolarity of medullary fluid in the kidney almost four times higher than the osmolarity of plasma?

  • The loop of Henle acts as a countercurrent multiplier and contributes solutes to the interstitial fluid.

  • Urea is recycled from the collecting duct and is transported to the interstitial fluid.

  • The medullary cells in the kidney synthesize solutes to establish the high osmolarity.

  • Both a and b occur.


How does ADH contribute to the formation of concentrated urine?

  • ADH increases the permeability of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle to water.

  • ADH increases the permeability of the descending limb of the loop of Henle to water.

  • ADH increases the permeability of the collecting duct to water by stimulating the insertion of aquaporins into the luminal membrane.

  • ADH decreases the permeability of the collecting duct to water by inhibiting the insertion of aquaporins into the luminal membrane.


What role do the vasa recta play in urine formation?

  • The vasa recta create the medullary osmotic gradient.

  • The vasa recta protect the medullary osmotic gradient by preventing rapid removal of salt.

  • The vasa recta receives the dilute filtrate from the distal convoluted tubule.

  • The vasa recta deliver urea to the medullary interstitial fluid


When considering drug administration, why is it important to know the renal clearance rate of the drug?

  • It dictates the dosage and frequency of administration of drugs.

  • It denotes how often drugs are recycled in the kidney.

  • It is used to determine the healing rate of an infection.

  • All of the above are factors in renal clearance rate.


Which of the following constitutes the largest solute component of urine?

  • Sodium

  • Potassium

  • Urea

  • Creatine


A patient feels radiating pain from the side of her body to the anterior abdominal wall. An MRI shows a bulging renal pelvis. Which is the most likely cause?

  • A kidney stone lodged in the ureter

  • A bacterial infection

  • Lack of blood flow to the kidney

  • An overflow of blood to the kidney


What features of the bladder predispose it to being able to stretch and relax repeatedly?

  • The wall contains smooth muscle.

  • The trigone acts as a spring when the bladder empties.

  • The walls are highly folded into rugae and the epithelium is transitional.

  • When emptied, the digestive viscera compress the bladder.


The process of voiding the bladder is called ______.

  • micturition

  • the urethral reflex

  • detrusor activation

  • incontinence


What is the functional difference between a male urethra and a female urethra?

  • Males have three urethral sphincters.

  • The male urethra is shared with the reproductive system.

  • The male urethra is connected to the renal pelvis.

  • The female urethra is much longer than a male’s.


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