The production of speech sounds
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THE PRODUCTION OF SPEECH SOUNDS. Taken from : Heinz J. Giegerich . English Phonology . An Introduction . (2005) Cambridge University Press . U.K. b y Marcelo Andrade.

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THE PRODUCTION OF SPEECH SOUNDS

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The production of speech sounds

THE PRODUCTION OF SPEECH SOUNDS

Takenfrom:

Heinz J. Giegerich. EnglishPhonology . AnIntroduction. (2005) Cambridge UniversityPress. U.K.

by Marcelo Andrade


The production of speech sounds

  • Mostspeechisproducedbyan air streamthatoriginates in thelungs and ispushed up throughthetrachea and the oral and nasal cavities.


The production of speech sounds

  • Duringitspassage, the air streamismodifiedbythevariousorgans of speech. Eachsuchmodifocation has differentacousticeffects, which are usedforthedifferentiation of sounds.

  • Theproduction of speechsoundsmaybedividedintofourseparatebutinterrelatedprocesses:


The production of speech sounds

  • Initiationprocess

  • Phonationprocess

  • Oro-nasal process

  • Articulation


The initiation process

Theinitiationprocess

1

  • In English (and mostotherlanguages), allspeechsoundsrequire a pulmonic (lung) air streamfortheirproduction. Theairstreamusedforspeechisalwaysmovingout of thelungs and up tothetrachea

Pulmonicegressive

air stream


The phonation process

2

Thephonationprocess

  • At theupperend of thetrachea, the air passesthroughthelarynx. Thelarynxcontainsthe vocal folds. Thespacebetweenthe vocal foldsiscalledglottis. Thisiswheretheprocess of phonationoccurs.

Glottis


The phonation process1

2

Thephonationprocess

  • The vocal folds can bemanipulatedbythe speaker and broughtintodifferent positions:

  • Narrowglottis. Whenthe vocal folds are broughttogether in such a waythatonly a narrowspaceisleftforthe air topassthrough, thepassage of air makesthemvibrate. Theresultingsoundwavescharacterisevoicedsounds.


The phonation process2

2

Thephonationprocess

  • Open glottis. Thisisthestate of theglottis in normal breathing, as well as in theproduction of voicelesssounds.


The phonation process3

2

Thephonationprocess

  • Open glottis. Thisisthestate of theglottis in normal breathing, as well as in theproduction of voicelesssounds.


The phonation process4

2

Thephonationprocess

  • Closedglottis:Thevocal folds are broughttogether so that no air can passbetweenthem. Theresultingsoundiscalledglottal stop. In someaccents of English, theglottal stop can replacethesound /t/ in wordslikefootball, bottle, bit, etc.

Clickheretowatch a video abouttheproduction of a glottal stop


The oro nasal process

3

Theoro-nasal process

  • Afterthe air passesthroughthelarynx, it can goeitherintothe oral cavityorintothe nasal cavity.


The articulation process

4

Thearticulationprocess

  • Afterthe air goesintoeither of thesecavities, thedifferentarticulatorsmodifythe air streamto produce thedifferentEnglishconsonants.

  • Forexample, whenproducingthesound /p/, thelips come together and andthe air isrelasedwith a puff of air. Whenproducingthe /m/ the air isreleasedthroughthe nasal cavity. In thesamewaywe use thedifferentarticulatorsto produce differentsounds.


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