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Introduction. KINE 433-504 Physiology of Exercise Fluckey JD TR 9:35-10:50a MBL.TAMU.EDU [email protected] Physical Activity and Athletics. Physiology. Anatomy – study of an organisms structure or morphology (the ‘What’)

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Introduction

Introduction

KINE 433-504

Physiology of Exercise

Fluckey JD

TR 9:35-10:50a

MBL.TAMU.EDU [email protected]


Physical activity and athletics

Physical Activity and Athletics


Physiology

Physiology

  • Anatomy – study of an organisms structure or morphology (the ‘What’)

  • Physiology – the study of function of organ systems, tissues, cells, and molecules within cells

  • Integrative Physiology – the holistic study of function; how the alteration of one area affects other processes


Exercise sport physiology

Exercise & Sport Physiology

  • Exercise Physiology – study of the body’s structures and functions are altered when exposed to acute and chronic bouts of exercise

  • Sport Physiology – the application of exercise physiology to the training of an athlete’s performance

    • Sport nutrition


Physiological responses to exercise

Physiological Responses to Exercise

  • Acute response – how the body responds to an individual bout of exercise

  • Chronic adaptations – the long-term adjustments the body makes when it is consistently challenged with repeated bouts of exercise

  • Exercise physiologists must note differences between training in a laboratory and training in the field


Factors to monitor during study

Factors to monitor during study

  • Temperature, humidity, air flow, noise

  • Sleep, meals (size, composition, time), caffeine, alcohol,

  • Diurnal variation – the fluctuations that occur during a 24-hr day

    • Heart rate, hormonal profile, muscle tension

  • Physiological studies with females

    • Menstrual cycle affects body weight, total body water, body temperature, metabolic rate, heart rate, stroke volume, mood state


Ergometers

Ergometers

  • Ergometer (ergo = work, meter = measure) –

    an exercise device that allows the amount and rate of a person’s physical work to be standardized and measured


Cycle ergometer

Cycle Ergometer

  • One of the original primary devices

  • Can be upright or supine

  • Can alter resistance, and therefore power output

  • Pros:

    • Accurate sampling of blood,

      blood pressure

    • Rate of work not dependent on

      body weight

  • Cons:

    • Not ideal for non-cyclists


Treadmills

Treadmills

  • Pros:

    • Easier to maintain rate of work (belt speed)

    • More natural movement

    • Higher physiological values than other ergometers

  • Cons:

    • Size, cost

    • Difficulty in obtaining blood, blood pressure


Other ergometers

Other Ergometers

  • Arm ergometer

  • Instruments for swimmers

    • Tethered vs. Flume

  • Water treadmill

  • Rowing ergometer

  • Dynamometers


Specificity of exercise testing

Specificity of Exercise Testing

  • Critical to test athletes on equipment that most closely monitors their activity

  • Swim Training Study

    • Effect of swim training on endurance capacity


Introduction1

Introduction

KINE 433-504

Physiology of Exercise

Fluckey JD

TR 9:35-10:50a

MBL.TAMU.EDU [email protected]


Principles of chronic adaptations to training

Principles of Chronic Adaptations to Training

  • Acute response – the body’s immediate response to a single bout of exercise

  • When discussing the long-term adaptations to repeated training, there are several key principles to keep in mind.

  • Principles apply to both cardiovascular and strength training

    • Continually try to think of examples for both training styles for each principle


Principle of individuality

Principle of Individuality

  • No two people will have precisely the same adaptations to a training program

  • Variation is largely genetic

    • Differences in cellular growth rates, metabolism, neural and endocrine regulation


Principle of specificity

Principle of Specificity

  • Training adaptations are highly specific to the type of activity and to the volume and intensity of the exercise performed

  • Critical to stress the physiological systems in a manner that most closely mimics your activity

  • “You get what you train for”


Principle of disuse

Principle of Disuse

  • An active person who stops training will see their fitness reduce to a level that meets the demands of daily use.

  • “Use it or lose it”


Principle of progressive overload

Principle of Progressive Overload

  • Combines two concepts: overload and progressive training

    • Overloading means to strain the body beyond its normal load

    • Progressive training is to continually increase the volume, duration, or intensity of a workout


Principle of hard easy

Principle of Hard/Easy

  • Too much overload too often can actually lead to detriments in performance and improvements

  • Principle of hard/easy is designed to allow the body and mind to recover on ‘easy’ days

  • Application to running, strength training


Principle of periodization

Principle of Periodization

  • A gradual cycling of specificity, intensity, and volume of a training program to achieve peak fitness for competitions

  • Macrocycles (year) divided into mesocycles (weeks-months)


Understanding research

Understanding Research

  • Textbooks tend to convey large themes that have been well-tested and confirmed over several years, and are critical for teaching the basics

  • Most scientists gain new information through scientific journals, in which they and others publish their most recent findings and work to better elucidate the details, or refute prior work


Research design

Research Design

  • Critical to clearly outline variables of interest and to minimize others (when possible)

    • If testing for the effect of age on a heart rate during a stress test, you may require a large range of ages, but may want to limit other factors that could skew data (use of any pharmaceutical drugs, smoking, activity level)

  • Use of a control group is important

    • This is how you determine the impact of your intervention

    • Placebo groups


Cross sectional research

Cross-sectional Research

In this study, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was measured in groups of subjects undergoing different volumes of exercise


Longitudinal research

Longitudinal Research

In this study, HDL-C was measured over time in a group of subjects training with distance running and a group of sedentary persons


Before next time

Before Next Time

  • Read Intro Chapter (1 - 27) Key Terms*

  • Read Chapter 1 – Muscle (33 – 55)


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