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Eco-Housing in Asia and the Pacific Region. Inception cum Training Workshop on Eco-housing in Bhutan 21 – 25 March 2006. Population . Asia & Pacific. Nearly two-thirds of world population growth is in Asia Nearly 50 million peoples are being added to Asia every year. Population .

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slide1

Eco-Housing in Asia and the Pacific Region

Inception cum Training Workshop on Eco-housing in Bhutan

21 – 25 March 2006

slide2

Population

Asia & Pacific

  • Nearly two-thirds of world population growth is in Asia
  • Nearly 50 million peoples are being added to Asia every year
slide3

Population

  • Projected population in Asia: 4.88 billion by 2030

Source: World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision

slide4

Urbanization

  • Asia will have an urban population of 2.6 billion by 2030

Asia

Growing

urban

proportion

54%

(2.6 billion)

37%

(1.4 billion)

Urban Population (Millions)

24%

Source: World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision

slide5

GDP Growth Forecast

2003-2015

6.0

3.1

3.1

2.3

  • The global economy is expected to grow at 3.1% during the 2002-2015
  • Asian economy is projected to be growing at 6% during the same period

Source: Global Economic Prospects 2003, World Bank

slide6

Emerging Middle Class

Middle class (million) based on the number of people who can buy automobiles

  • 60s and 70s: if a Chinese person wanted to buy a bicycle, he had to save for a few years
  • Now: for some middle class families, it would only take 2 to 3 years to save and buy a car
slide7

Growing Service Sector

Share of service

sector in

global economy

Projections

60%

38%

slide9

Emissions from mobile source

Europe

USA & Canada

Asia

SO2 emissions2

Mobile sources are the major emitters of NOx,CO, particulates, and HC, and in addition contribute to SOx, lead and CO2.

110 million tons

80 million tons

Mobile sources contribution in Shanghai1

CO HC NOx

Current 75% 93% 44%

2010 94% 98% 75%

(million metric tons per year)

Source: 1. SEI (2003); 2. www.wri.org

slide11

Health impacts of air pollution

Regional air pollution

Urban air pollution

Indoor air pollution

Scale of health impacts

slide12

Health Costs of Air Pollution

  • Asia1
  • An estimated 487,000 premature deaths occur each year due to outdoor air pollution.
  • China2
  • Environmental and health costs of air pollution in China is about 7 % of GDP [budget deficit in 2003 = 3.3% of GDP]5
  • Estimates shows that these costs could rise to 13% of China’s GDP by 2020
  • Bangkok
  • Health cost of air pollution
  • $640 million
  • $800 million by 2020

Economic Implications of Health Impacts4

Bangkok

Exposed to diesel exhaust6

Exposed to clean air6

Source: 1. WHO(2002); 2. State of the World 2003, World Watch Institute; 4. URBAIR project; 5. UN, 2004; 6: NIES, www.nies.go.jp

slide13

Costs of Air Pollution

Air pollution is becoming a major health threat in Asian cities

“An estimated 487,000 premature deaths in Asia occur each year due to outdoor air pollution”1

“ A total of 3,547 persons were killed in international terrorist attacks in 2001”2

1. WHO (2002);2. USDoS(2002)

slide14

Impact: water quantity

2003

Increasing supply to cities

105 million tons grain short fall

(largest in the record)

Increasing

temperature

Decreasing supply to agriculture

Decreasing

water table

2004

Need to produce

105 m tons (2003 short fall)

15 m tons (to feed 74 m people who was added in 2004)

  • 3 of the 4 warmest years on record came during the last 4 years
  • 2004 projected to be the 5th consecutive year in which the harvest falls short of consumption
slide15

Impact: water quality

Urban centers contribute more than 25% of the sewage in India

  • 63% of population in Asia without access to clean water
  • Infant mortality rates are 10 to 20 times higher in cities without adequate water and sanitation
slide16

Import of Petroleum: burden on national budget

Total Asian Oil Consumption by 2010

(Barrel / Day)1

Need to be imported from outside the region [18 – 24 million b/d]

India spends over $3.5 billion on crude petroleum import annually2.

Gasoline consumption trends in Shanghai, China3

Source: 1. Harvard International Review (2003); 2. ESCAP Statistical Year Book 2002; 3. M.P. Walsh, US AEP 2000

slide17

Global Primary Energy Use

Source: 1. Volt Viewtech (www.energyloans.org)

slide18

Emissions from residential areas

4,535 Kg of CO2 / year

9,979 Kg of CO2 /year

  • Average home emit more than twice as much carbon dioxide as the average car1

Source: 1. Volt Viewtech (www.energyloans.org)

slide19

Prevention: Turning the environmental degradation curve

Business as usual scenario

Environmental degradation

Prevention measures such as renewable energy sources

Economic development

slide20

Prevention Vs Mitigation/rehabilitation

Rehabilitation

Costs of implementation

Mitigation

Prevention

Costs of damage

Prevention Mitigation Rehabilitation

99% efforts

Today

Tomorrow

99% efforts

Today & Tomorrow

slide21

Hybrids

Price: $20,810 MSRP

Fuel efficiency: 23 Km / litre

Saving: $5,000 over 15 years

Reduces

CO2 by 50% CO, HC and NOx by 90% below Japanese standards.

Toyota Prius Hybrid

slide22

SOLVE SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

SOCIAL BENEFITS

  • create domestic jobs
  • electricity to remote areas which are not in the national power grid

Hydrogen

Energy

ECONOMIC BENEFITS

ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS

  • eliminate our dependence on foreign oil
  • solve our balance of payments woes
  • export opportunities
  • solve our air pollution problems
  • eliminate oil spills
  • reduce noise pollution

water

H2O

slide23

83,000MW

Less than 1.2% of economic potential

42,000MW

Hydropower potential in Nepal

WATER RESOURCES IN NEPAL

Nepal is reach in water resources and among the world’s top 5 countries in hydropower potential.

H2O

slide24

Prevention

Technical measures

Mobility

Legal & financial

Technical measures

Housing

Legal & financial

slide25

Knowledge building and education 

Networking

Demonstration Projects

Regional Expert Consultation

First Expert group meeting; 13 September 2005

3 groups were formed, and each of them are bringing out a white paper on it.

slide27

General Objective:

  • promote eco-friendly buildings.
  • Specific Objectives:
  • demonstrate the suitability and technological feasibility.
  • create awareness about the sustainability of eco-friendly buildings, leading to their wider acceptance and use.

Objectives

slide28

Regional expert group

  • Develop generic designs for the different climatic zone and economic groups
  • Assist in constituting a National Task Force (NTF)
  • Design tailored to each of the selected countries
  • Enhance the capacity of national technical committee
  • Assist in the construction in selected countries
  • Facilitate wider dissemination of the demonstrated concept
  • Promotion in other countries of the region

Demonstration Project: Scope

slide29

Scope

Phase 3:

Evaluation and dissemination

Phase 2:

Training and construction

Phase 1:

Development of guidelines and design

slide30

Phase 1: Development of Guidelines and Design

  • Generic guideline
  • National Inception workshop
  • Site specific guideline
  • Training selected local architects
  • Detailed design by the local architects
  • Review and finalization of the design
slide31

Phase 2: Training and Construction

  • Identify builders for implementing the construction
  • Implement the demonstration project with participation of entrepreneurs and local stakeholdersSite specific guideline
  • Training as appropriate
slide32

Phase 3: Evaluation and Dissemination

  • Hand over the building to users
  • Select agency for upkeep and maintenance of the facilities
  • Evaluate the impacts of the project with respect to select indicators and make Scenarios for the future based on the project outcomes
  • Prepare a compendium on the results of the project and dissemination
slide33

Potential Partners

National Authority

Implementing Agency

Local Authorities

Local architects

Regional architects

International Agency

slide34

Regional

National

Steering Committee

National Focal Points

Regional Expert group

National Implementing Agencies

National Task Force

Implementation Arrangement

Guidance

Technical input

Actual construction

slide35

Maldives

Sri Lanka

Indonesia

National WS

National WS

National WS

Site Selection

Site Selection

Site Selection

Regional Training

Regional Training Programme

Site Specific

Design

Site Specific

Design

Site Specific

Design

slide36

Thailand: Change of Policy on Sustainable Urbanization

ECO-HOUSING

In 2005, the Thai Cabinet approved a project for an eco-city, as a joint venture between the Natural Resources and Environment Ministry, Thailand and UNEP

GREEN VEHICLES

On July 27, 2004, the Cabinet approved a new vehicle excise tax structure to promote eco-friendly vehicles

slide38

Eco-Towns in Japan

The Concept of Kawasaki Eco-Town

Reduce environmental impacts throughout the entire spectrum of activities

Recycling not only within Individual industrial firms but also among the firms

Source: www.kawasaki-net.ne.jp

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