Direct fixed cost estimates
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DIRECT FIXED COST ESTIMATES. ESTIMATE METHODS FOR AUXILIARIES AND SPECIFIC COMPONENTS. AUXILIARY FACTILITIES . AS LISTED IN THE TEXT:. GENERAL CATEGORIES. PLANT UTILITY SYSTEMS STEAM WATER AIR POWER NATURAL GAS MINOR UTILITIES FIRE SYSTEMS INERT GASES WASTE DISPOSAL SEWERS

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DIRECT FIXED COST ESTIMATES

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Direct fixed cost estimates

DIRECT FIXED COST ESTIMATES

ESTIMATE METHODS FOR AUXILIARIES AND SPECIFIC COMPONENTS


Auxiliary factilities

AUXILIARY FACTILITIES

  • AS LISTED IN THE TEXT:


General categories

GENERAL CATEGORIES

  • PLANT UTILITY SYSTEMS

    • STEAM

    • WATER

    • AIR

    • POWER

    • NATURAL GAS

  • MINOR UTILITIES

    • FIRE SYSTEMS

    • INERT GASES

  • WASTE DISPOSAL

    • SEWERS

    • HAZARDOUS MATERIAL

      TREATMENT SYSTEMS

  • DISTRIBUTION &

    TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    • ROADS

    • RAILS

    • DOCKS

http://www.syska.com/Energy/images/St-Joes-Boiler-plnt.jpg

http://www.smvrhm.org/2misc/unk-boxcar-loading.jpg


Estimate factors

ESTIMATE FACTORS

  • DEPEND ON TYPE OF FACILITY


Auxiliary processes can be complicated

AUXILIARY PROCESSES CAN BE COMPLICATED

  • EXAMPLE OF WASTE TREATMENT PROCESS

http://www.uscentrifuge.com/images/process-operation2-lg.jpg


Piping system cost estimates

PIPING SYSTEM COST ESTIMATES

  • ESTIMATES DEPEND ON FOLLOWING FACTORS

  • TYPE OF SYSTEM

    • WELDED

    • SCREWED

    • SWAGED FLANGES

    • WELDED FLANGES

  • MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION

    • SEE TABLE 12-2 FOR ALTERNATE TYPES

  • http://www.welcoservices.com/pic3b.jpg


    Piping design criteria

    PIPING DESIGN CRITERIA

    • MAXIMUM VELOCITIES

      • DIAMETER IS GENERALLY SET TO MEET PROJECT CRITERIA

      • SEE TABLE 12.3 AND NOTE LIMITS AS A FUNCTION OF VISCOSITY

    • SPECIFIED PRESSURE DROP (SEE MEMO CTA-02)

      • USE SPECIFIC EQUATIONS FOR LAMINAR, TURBULENT, COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW.

      • CHOOSE MORE CONSERVATIVE (LARGER DIAMETER) WHEN COMPARING RESULTS FROM VARIOUS MODELS

      • AVOID SONIC VELOCITY (VALVES ARE PRIMARY SOURCES)


    Other constraints

    OTHER CONSTRAINTS

    • CODES

      • ASME B31.3 – PROCESS PLANT PIPING

      • ASME B31.1 – STEAM PIPING

    http://www.fluidh.com/images/imgCalcPumpHead2.gif


    System curves

    SYSTEM CURVES

    • PRESSURE DROP IN FLUID FLOW LINES (TOTAL HEAD)

      • USING EQUIVALENT LENGTHS REQUIRE SOME IDEA OF THE ROUTING.

      • FACTORS IN CRANE OR CAMERON.

    www.fluidedesign.com/download-free/chapter4-extract.pdf


    Piping installation options

    PIPING INSTALLATION OPTIONS

    • OVERHEAD PIPING SYSTEMS ARE EASIER TO MAINTAIN

      • RUN PIPING IN RACKS

      • MINIMUM SIZE IS GENERALLY 2"(NOM) TO ALLOW REASONABLE SPAN OF ABOUT 25 FT

      • RACK PIPING LAYOUT SHOULD ISOLATE INCOMPATIBALE MATERIALS

      • USE STRUCTURAL STEEL IN BUILDINGS

    http://www.sococo.co.uk/petro-chemical.htm


    Subsurface piping

    SUBSURFACE PIPING

    • GENERALY LOCATED IN TRENCHES

      • DOES NOT INTERFERE WITH MOST SURFACE OPTIONS

      • CAN LIMIT SPREAD OF LEAKS WHEN FLUIDS FLOW INTO TRENCHES

      • TRENCHES MUST BE PERIODICALLY DRAINED

      • HAVE MIXED EFFECTS IN FIRES

    • MANY PLANTS HAVE A COMBINATION OF OVERHEAD AND SUBSURFACE PIPING

    http://www.nasm.si.edu/udvarhazy/bts/good_place/hazy_4.jpg


    Detailed piping design factors

    DETAILED PIPING DESIGN FACTORS

    • ATTEMPT TO MAINTAIN CONSTANT VELOCITIES THROUGH SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES OF EFFICIENCY

    • USE WELDED WHERE LEAKS OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS WOULD BE POSSIBLE

    • FLANGED FITTINGS ARE USED WHERE LINES MIGHT BE FREQUENTLY OPENED FOR MAINTENANCE

    • LINES 2-3"(NOM) IN DIAMETER MAY BE RUN IN THE FIELD. LARGER SHOULD BE FABRICATED IN SHOP.


    Piping quality checks

    PIPING QUALITY CHECKS

    • RADIOGRAPHY REQUIREMENTS

      • RANGE FROM 0% ON LOW RISK SYSTEMS TO 100% ON HIGH RISK

      • 5% RANDOM A TYPICAL INTERMEDIATE VALUE.

      • THERMAL AND MECHANICAL STRESS CONSIDERATIONS

    • EXPANSION MUST BE CONSIDERED AND SYSTEMS DESIGNED TO HAVE ZERO STRESS ON EQUIPMENT NOZZLES

      • NPSH MAY BE A FACTOR WHEN DESIGN FOR PUMP INLETS. SEE PERRY'S FOR GUIDELINES

      • AVOID VAPOR TRAPS IN EQUIPMENT PIPING

      • CONTROL VALVES SHOULD BE ISOLATED TO ALLOW REMOVAL FOR MAINTENANCE WITHOUT SHUTTING DOWN THE SYSTEM


    Valve design criteria

    VALVE DESIGN CRITERIA

    • DEPEND ON MEDIA AND SERVICE

      • POSITIVE SHUTOFF - GATES, PLUG, BALL

      • GASES - GATES FOR SHUTOFF, BUTTERFLYS FOR THROTTLING

      • CHECK VALVES - PREVENT BACKFLOW AND SHOULD BE INSTALLED AFTER ROTATING EQUIPMENT

    http://www.valvediagnostics.com/media/pictures/gate.gif

    http://www.offshore247.com/news/article.asp?Id=3226

    http://www.valvediagnostics.com/media/pictures/check.gif


    Relative costs for piping

    RELATIVE COSTS FOR PIPING

    • SEE FIGURES 12-4 THROUGH 12-12

    • PIPING COSTS ARE LOWEST FOR SCREWED PIPING, BUT THIS IS GENERALLY LIMITED TO 6” DIAMETER OR LESS

    • STRAIGHT RUN PIPE IS GENERALLY FIELD FABRICATED IN 20 FT SECTIONS

      • AUTOMATIC WELDING MACHINES FOR FIELD INSTALLATIONS ARE AVAILABLE FOR STRAIGHT RUNS

      • SCREWED CONNECTIONS CAN ALSO BE INSTALLED IN LONGER SECTIONS


    Other piping cost factors

    OTHER PIPING COST FACTORS

    • PIPE WITH BENDS, FITTINGS, VALVES, MULTIPLE CONNECTIONS IS TYPICALLY FABRICATED IN A SHOP

    • THE SHOP CAN BE LOCATED IN THE FIELD FOR PIPE UNDER 1 FT IN DIAMETER

    • LARGE PIPE FABRICATIONS ARE COMPLETE IN A SHOP WITH AUTOMATED WELDERS

    http://home.iprimus.com.au/jackdog/lockseam22.jpg

    http://www.alibaba.com/catalog/11115924/Quality_Pipe_Fittings_Elbow_Bend_Tee_Flange_Reducer.html


    Specific example cl 2 plants

    SPECIFIC EXAMPLE Cl2 PLANTS

    DATA FROM T. PAVONE


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