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The Republic of Uzbekistan The Ministry of higher and secondary education ferghana state university COURSE work subject: Zoology of invertebrate animals by:Ahmedova Dilobar group 231.

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The types of sponges

The Republic of Uzbekistan The Ministry of higher and secondary educationferghana state universityCOURSE work subject: Zoology of invertebrate animalsby:AhmedovaDilobar group 231

Theme: The mini world of poli-celled animals. The high class of parazoas. Types of sponges,general classification of sponges, breeding, contamination, larvas, gemullas.


The types of sponges

The types of sponges.

, Sponges (Phylum Porifera) are a group of simple aquaticinvertebrates that include glass sponges, demisponges, and calcareous sponges. Adult sponges are sessile animals that live attached to hard rocky surfaces, shells, or submerged objects. The larvae are cilliated, free-swimming creatures. Most sponges inhabit marine environments but a few species live in freshwater habitats. Sponges are primitive multicelluar animals that have no digestive system, no circulatory system, and no nervous system. They do not have organs and their cells are not organized into well-defined tissues.


The types of sponges

.

There are three subgroups of sponges.

The glass sponges (Class Hexactinellida) have a skeleton that consists of fragile, glass-like spicules that are made of silica.

The demosponges (Class Demospongiae) are often vibrantly colored and can grow to be the largest of all sponges. The demosponges account for more than 90 percent of all living sponge species.

The calcarious sponges (Class Calcarea) are the only group of sponges to have spicules that are made of calcium carbonate. Calcarious sponges are often smaller than other sponges.


Theories

Theories.

.

  • The body of a sponge is like a sac that is perforated with lots of small openings or pores. Thebodywallconsistsofthreelayers:

  • an outer layer of flat epidermal cells

  • a middle layer that consists of gelatinous substance and amoeboid cells that migrate within the layer

  • an inner layer that consists of flagillated cells and collar cells (also called choanocytes)


The types of sponges

.

Sponges are filter feeders. They draw water in through the pores located throughout their body wall into a central cavity. The central cavity is lined with collar cells which have a ring of tentacles that surround a flagellum. Movement of the flagellum creates current that keeps water flowing through the central cavity and out of a hole at the top of the sponge called the osculum. As water passes over the collar cells, food is captured by the collar cell's ring of tentacles. Once absorbed, food is digested in food vacuoles or transferred to the amoeboid cells in the middle layer of the body wall for digestion.


The type of spongia

.The type of SPONGIA

.

  • The water current also delivers a constant supply of oxygen to the sponge and removes nitrogenous waste products. Water exits the sponge throuhg the large opening at the top of the body called the osculum.

  • Classification:

  • Kingdom:Animalia

  • Phylum:PoriferaThe PhylumnPorifera contains the following subgroups:

    • Class:Calcarea (calcarioussponges)

    • Class:Demospongiae (demosponges)

    • Class:Hexactinellida (glasssponges)


The structure of clouds

The structure of clouds

. Sponges (poriferans) are very simple animals that live permanently attached to a location in the water - they are sessile as adults. There are from 5,000 to 10,000 known species of sponges. Most sponges live in salt water - only about 150 species live in fresh water. Sponges evolved over 500 million years ago.


The types of sponges

. Anatomy: The body of a sponge has two outer layers separated by an acellular (having no cells) gel layer called the mesohyl (also called the mesenchyme). In the gel layer are either spicules (supportive needles made of calcium carbonate) or spongin fibers (a flexible skeletal material made from protein). Sponges have neither tissues nor organs. Different sponges form different shapes, including tubes, fans, cups, cones, blobs, barrels, and crusts. These invertebrates range in size from a few millimeters to 2 meters tall.

The body of this primitive animal has thousands of pores which let water flow through it continually. Sponges obtain nourishment and oxygen from this flowing water.


The types of holloweds

The types of holloweds

The three main types of holloweds are: askon(a), sikon(b) and leykon(v).


The types of sponges

. Diet: Sponges are filter feeders. Most sponges eat tiny, floating organic particles and plankton that they filter from the water the flows through their body. Food is collected in specialized cells called choanocytes and brought to other cells by amoebocytes

.


The construction of sponges

The construction of sponges


The types of sponges

If a sperm is caught by another sponge's collar cells (choanocytes), fertilization of an egg by the traveling sperm takes place inside the sponge. The resulting tiny larva is released and is free-swimming; it uses tiny cilia (hairs ) to propel itself through the water. The larva eventually settles on the sea floor, becomes sessile and grows into an adult.


The elements of the cell

The elements of the cell

  • Classification:KingdomAnimalia (animals)

  • PhylumPorifera (sponges)

  • Classes: Calcarea (calcerous sponges - having spicules), Demospongiae (horn sponges, like the bath sponge), Scleropongiae (coralline or tropical reef sponges), and Hexactinellida (glass sponges).

    . Some sponges also reproduce asexually; fragments of their body (buds) are broken off by water currents and carried to another location, where the sponge will grow into a clone of the parent sponge (its DNA is identical to the parent's DNA). 


The physiology of holloweds

The physiology of holloweds


The types of sponges

. Glossary of Sponge Terms:archaeocytes (amoebocytes) - Cells with pseudopods, located in the mesohyl. They are used in processing food, distributing it to other cells, and for other functions.benthic - living at or near the bottom of the seas.choanocyte - also called collar cells, choanocytes line the inner cavity of the sponge. They have a sticky, funnel-shaped collar (that collects food particles) and a flagellum (which whips around, moving water). The sponge obtains its nutrients and oxygen by processing flowing water using choanocytes. Choanocytes are also involved in sponge reproduction; they catch floating sperm.


The skeleton structure of holloweds

The skeleton structure of holloweds

. epidermis (pinacocyte) - the epidermis is the layer of cells that covers the outer surface of the sponge. The thin, flattened cells of the epidermis are called pinacocytes.flagellum - the whip-like structure of a choanocyte; the flagellum moves, pushing water (which contains nourishment) through the sponge.hermaphrodite - an animal in which each adult can act as either the female or the male in reproduction.holdfast - root-like tendrils that attach the sponge to rocks.invertebrate - an animal without a backbone.mesohyl (mesenchyme) - the gelatinous layer between the outer body of the sponge and the spongocoel (the inner cavity).


The different skeleton types of holloweds

The different skeleton types of holloweds


The breeding of holloweds

.the breeding of holloweds

.osculum - a large opening in a sponge through which water flows out of the sponge. Sponges may have more than one oscula.ostia - a series of tiny pores all over the body of a sponge that let water into the sponge. One of these is called an ostium.pinacocyte - pinacocytes are the thin, flattened cells of the epidermis, the sponge's outer layer of cells.porocyte - cells with pores that allow water into the sponge; they are located all over the sponge's body.sessile - permanently attached to a substrate and unable to move on its own. Adult sponges are sessile.


The types of sponges

Jinsiyko‘payishbulutlartanasidaamyobatsitlardantuxumhujayrasivaspermatozoidlarhosilbo‘lishiorqaliboradi. Germafroditturlardaularningikkalasi ham harbirindividningmezogleyasidahosilbo‘lsa, ayrimjinslilardaesatuxumhujayralarvaspermatozoidlarharxilindividlardarivojlanadi. Otalanishonaorganizmidaspermatozoidlarningsuvoqimiorqalikirishinatijasida ro‘y beradi. Zigotadankiprikliko‘phujayralilichinkapaydobo‘ladi. Lichinkalaronaorganizmidantashqarigachiqib, birorsuvsubstratigayopishib, voyagaetganbulutgaaylanadi. Bulutlardanafasolishvaayirishjarayonlaritanayuzasiorqalikechadi.


Ko payish jarayonining kechishi

Ko’payishjarayoniningkechishi


G ovaktanlilar gemullasining mikroskopdagi umumiy ko rinishi

G’ovaktanlilargemullasiningmikroskopdagiumumiyko’rinishi


The types of sponges

Jinsiyko‘payishbulutlartanasidaamyobatsitlardantuxumhujayrasivaspermatozoidlarhosilbo‘lishiorqaliboradi. Germafroditturlardaularningikkalasi ham harbirindividningmezogleyasidahosilbo‘lsa, ayrimjinslilardaesatuxumhujayralarvaspermatozoidlarharxilindividlardarivojlanadi. Otalanishonaorganizmidaspermatozoidlarningsuvoqimiorqalikirishinatijasida ro‘y beradi. Zigotadankiprikliko‘phujayralilichinkapaydobo‘ladi. Lichinkalaronaorganizmidantashqarigachiqib, birorsuvsubstratigayopishib, voyagaetganbulutgaaylanadi. Bulutlardanafasolishvaayirishjarayonlaritanayuzasiorqalikechadi.


G ovaktanlilar gemulasining rivojlanishi

G’ovaktanlilargemulasiningrivojlanishi


Rivojlanayotgan g ovaktanli organizm

Rivojlanayotgang’ovaktanliorganizm


G ovak tanlilarning xilma xilligi

G’ovaktanlilarningxilma-xilligi

Bulutlar tipi 3 tasinfnitashkiletadi:

  • 1.Ohaklibulutlar - Calcarea - asosandengizbulutlari.

  • 2.SHishasimonyokikremniybulutlar - Triaxonida - asosandengizbulutlari, balandligi 50 smgacha, (ayrimlariningtanasisilindrshaklida, balandligi 1 m.gacha), ergasanchilganignasiesa 3 m gacha.

  • 3.Oddiybulutlarko‘lvaturlisuvhavzalaridauchraydi.


The types of sponges

Ohak skeletli g’ovaktanlilar (Calcarea) sinfi

Skeleti to’rt o’qli, uch o’qli yoki bir o’qli ohak ninalardan iborat. Dengizlarning uncha chuqur bo’lmagan joylarida uchraydi, tanasi uncha yirik bo’lmaydi. Askon, sikon va leykon tipidan tuzilgan. Asosiy turlari Sycon, Leucon urug’lariga kiradi.


Ohaksimon bilitlarning xilma xilligi

Ohaksimonbilitlarningxilma-xilligi


Bu kabi ohaksimon bulutlar 10 smgacha ko tarilib o sadi

Bu kabiohaksimonbulutlar 10 smgachako’tarilibo’sadi


Shishasimon skeletli g ovaktanlilar hyalospongia sinfi

Shishasimonskeletlig’ovaktanlilar (Hyalospongia) sinfi

Kattaligi 50 smgacha, dengizlarningchuqurqismidayashaydiganhayvonlar. Tanasinaysimon, xaltasimon, ba’zanqadahsimonyokisilindsimonshaklda. Yakkaholdayashovchivakillarisikonoidshaklda. Kremniyninalariucho’qli, judaxilma-xiltuzilgan. Ko’pinchaninauchlariyopishibpanjarahosilqiladi. Mezogleyasiyaxshirivojlanmagan. Euplectellaavlodigamansubayrimturlari 1 m gayetadigansilindrsimontanasiuzunligi 3 m gachabo’lganninadaniboratpoyayordamidasuvtubigaqadalganbo’ladi.


Shishasimon skeletli bulutlarning xilma xilligi

Shishasimonskeletlibulutlarningxilma-xilligi


Oddiy g ovaktanlilar demospongia sinfi

Oddiyg’ovaktanlilar (Demospongia) sinfi

Ko’pchilikg’ovaktanlilarmanashusinfgamansubhisoblanadi. Skeletikremniyyokispongiydanyokiularningharikkalasidaniborat. Bu sinfgamansubto’rto’qlig’ovaktanlilarturkumiskeletninalarito’rto’qliyokiucho’qlibo’ladi.


The types of sponges

Oddiybulutlargayiriksharsimongeodiyalar (Geodia) vaalvonranglidengizapelsinlari (Tethya) avlodi, po’kakg’ovaktanlilar (Suberitidae) vaparmalovchig’ovaktanlilar (Clionidae) oilasikiradi.


The types of sponges

Bu sinfningkremniy-muguzskeletlilar (Demospongia) turkumidatualetg’ovaktanlisizimovkavabodyagalar (Spongellidaeoilasi) kiradi. Chuchuksuvhavzalarida, jumladanO’zbekistondachuchuksuvg’ovaktanlisibodyaga (Spongilla) avlodigamansubturlarkengtarqalgan.


Tualet g ovaktanlisi zimovka

Tualetg’ovaktanlisizimovka


Oddiy bulutlarning xilma xilligi

Oddiybulutlarningxilma-xilligi


G ovaktanlilar ekologiyasi va amaliy ahamiyati

G’ovaktanlilarekologiyasivaamaliyahamiyati

Ko’pchilikg’ovaktanlilarokeanlarningiliqsuvlitropikvasubtropikqismidaunchachuqurbo’lmagantoshloqjoylardayashaydi. Ulararktikavasubarktikasuvlaridabirmunchakamroquchraydi. Loyqasuvg’ovaktanlilar nay sistemasiniyopibqo’yadi. Shuninguchunularbalchiqliloyqalanadigansuvlardako’puchramaydi.


The types of sponges

Bundayjoylardauchraydiganturlarningsuvtubidanyuqoriko’taribturuvchigigantspikulalaribo’ladi. Sohilningsuvko’tarilib-qaytibturadiganqismidayashaydigang’ovaktanlilarbirornarsagayopishibbo’rtma, yostiqchayokiqobiqqao’xshaydi. Suvningchuqurqismidauchraydigang’ovaktanlilarningkremniyliskeletiqattiq, lekinjudamo’rt, sayozjoydayashaydiganko’pchilikg’ovaktanlilarningskeletianchamustahkamvapishiqbo’ladi. G’ovaktanlilarsuvniharxilmexanikvaorganikifloslanishdansaqlaydiganbiofiltratorlarsifatidakattaahamiyatgaega.


The types of sponges

G’ovaktanlilarningiqtisodiyahamiyatiunchakattaemas. Ayrimjanubiymamlakatlardayumshoqorganikskeletlitualetg’ovaktanlilariyuvishvayuvinishuchun, shuningdekharxiltexnikmaqsadlardafoydalaniladi. Chuchuksuvbodyagasiningmaydalanganskeletidanbodkasalligidateriniishqalashuchunfoydalaniladi.


Qirg oq g ovaktanlilari

Qirg’oqg’ovaktanlilari


Suv osti g ovaktanlilari

Suvostig’ovaktanlilari


H ovaktanlilarning simbioz yashash shakli

H’ovaktanlilarningsimbiozyashashshakli


G ovaktanlilar filogeneyasi

G’ovaktanlilarfilogeneyasi

G’ovaktanlilar – judaqadimgiorganizmlar. Ularningqazilmaqoldiqlarikembriyvaproterozoyjinslaritarkibidauchraydi. G’ovaktanlilartuzilishiningko’pginaxususiyatlari, ya’nito’qimavaorganlariningixtisoslashmaganligi, ularningjudasoddatuzilganligidandarakberadi.

G’ovaktanlilarningparenximulalichinkasiMechnikovko’rsatibberganfagotsitellagajudao’xshashbo’ladi. Fagotsitellanio’troqyashashgao’tishitufaylig’ovaktanlilarpaydobo’lgandeyishmumkin.


The types of sponges

Leking’ovaktanlilarembrionyaproqlariniteskariag’darilishitufayli, ularningtashqiqavatidagixivchinlihujayralaribotibkirib, ichkiyoqachalixivchinliqavat – xoanotsitlarni, ichkihujayralaresatashqi dermal qavatnihosilqiladi. Bu dalillarg’ovaktanlilarhayvonotolamievolyutsiyasiningdastlabkidavrlarida, ya’niembrionalvaraqalarishakllanishiningboshlang’ichdavrlaridahayvonlarningumumiyshajarasidanajralib, mustaqilrivojlanishgao’tganhayvonlarekanliginiisbotetadi.


E tiboringiz uchun rahmat

E’TIBORINGIZ UCHUN RAHMAT


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