Alfred Adler

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2. Alfred Adler. 1902Joined Freud's discussion group on neurotics1910Co-founder with Freud Journal of Psychoanalyses 1912Separates from Freud and founds the Society for Individual Psychology. 3. Neo-Freudian. Minimized role of psycho-sexual stagesCulture, spiritualit

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Alfred Adler

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1. Alfred Adler 1870 - 1937 INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY

2. 2 Alfred Adler 1902 Joined Freud's discussion group on neurotics 1910 Co-founder with Freud Journal of Psychoanalyses 1912 Separates from Freud and founds the Society for Individual Psychology

3. 3 Neo-Freudian Minimized role of psycho-sexual stages Culture, spirituality, society also influence personality and behavior Personality development occurs through life-span

4. 4 Freud and Adler Agreements Disagreements Symptoms have a purpose Dreams are meaningful Influence of early life on later life Theory of instincts Biological determinism Role of transference in therapy

5. 5 View of Human Nature Holistic and social view of humans Social beings, self-determined, decision-makers All behavior is purposeful Freedom to choose implies values and meanings Social interest is the most important value The main motivation for behavior is striving for significance Phenomenological approach

6. 6 Adler’s most significant and distinctive concept Refers to an individual’s attitude toward and awareness of being a part of the human community Mental health is measured by the degree to which we successfully share with others and are concerned with their welfare Happiness and success are largely related to social connectedness Social Interest

7. 7 Striving for Significance Compensating for weaknesses Attaining a unique identity Achieving a sense of belonging Security Competence (vs. sense of inferiority)

8. 8 Phenomenological Approach Adlerians attempt to view the world from the client’s subjective frame of reference How life is, in reality is less important than how the individual believes life to be It is not the childhood experiences per se that are crucial, but our recollections and interpretations of these events

9. 9 Life presents challenges in the form of Life Tasks Society ability to share with others Work making a contribution to others Sex achieving intimacy Spiritual personal meaning in life, relation with cosmos Coping with oneself self-acceptance

10. 10 Family Constellation Primary social environment where the child, through exploration and observation, learns what gains approval and how to achieve significance (sense of competence and acceptance).

11. 11 Birth Order First Born Second Born Middle Child Youngest Child Only Child

12. 12 Life Style Conclusions about the self, others, and the environment based on subjective experiences with parents and siblings. Conceptualized as a cognitive structure or map from which we apprehend reality and interpret experience

13. 13 Life Style It is largely out of awareness and includes convictions about: Self-concept Who I am Self-ideal Who should I be to be significant The World around What they demand of me Ethical beliefs Sense of right and wrong

14. 14 Psychologically Healthy Individuals Have developed social interest Commit self to life-tasks w/o excuses Have a sense of belonging Have positive self-esteem and feel acceptable Are able to accept their imperfections

15. 15 Concept of Psychopathology Discouragement Acting as if one is inferior Avoid life tasks Develop symptoms as excuses for avoiding tasks and save face

16. 16 Purpose of Maladaptive Behaviors (Dreikurs) Behavior Call Attention Power Struggle Revenge Display Hopelessness Feeling Irritated Challenged Hurt Hopeless

17. 17 Adlerian Therapy Cooperative and educational enterprise Goals: Change faulty thinking and mistaken assumptions Foster social interest Decrease inferiority complex Overcome discouragement Changes in the lifestyle (mistakes, perceptions, goals)

18. 18 Faulty Thinking and Mistaken Assumptions (Private Logic) Overgeneralizations: life is dangerous; people are mean False or impossible goals of security: I must please everybody Misperceptions of life demands: To succeed you must be perfect. Denial of self-worth Faulty values: succeed no matter what.

19. 19 Stages of Therapy Establishing the Relationship Assessment: Exploring the Individual’s Dynamics Gaining Insight Reorientation

20. 20 I. Establishing the Relationship Collaborative relationship Based on trust Attend to subjective experience of client Exploration of client’s issues Setting general goals Learning process

21. 21 II. Assessment To explore the clients’ life-style and how it affects life tasks Techniques The Life Assessment; Topics Explore how initial concern relates to life task Experiences in family constellation Early recollections (content and associated affect) Number one priority of client (basic convictions) The Question – to explore if symptoms have a psychosomatic component or not (What if…?)

22. 22 III. Gaining Insight Help the client understand their life style and see how it affects their functioning in the tasks of life. Explore faulty perceptions, mistaken beliefs, and values Understand their role in creating problems Gain awareness of responsibility for actions

23. 23 III. Gaining Insight : Techniques Interpretation Bring to awareness client's goals and beliefs and how they motivate their behaviors Focus on purposes and consequences of behaviors Confrontation – Challenge clients with Discrepancies between behaviors and beliefs Rationalizations for behavior, mistaken beliefs, private goals, and unproductive behavior

24. 24 IV. Reorientation Action oriented phase to help clients put insights into practice and get the courage to make changes in their lives. Techniques: Immediacy Acting as-if Paradoxical Intention Push-button technique Spitting on the soup Task setting Catching oneself

25. 25 IV. Reorientation: Techniques 1/2 Immediacy attending to behaviors occurring in the therapy relation to help clients explore their motivations and behaviors Paradoxical intention prescribe the symptom Spitting in the soup identify secondary gain of a given behavior or symptom Catching oneself to help gain control of behaviors one wants to change

26. 26 IV. Reorientation: Techniques 2/2 Acting as-if Rehearse desired behaviors Push button technique Imagine pleasant and unpleasant situations and attend to feelings generated Task setting Step-wise process of behavior change to assure success, foster feelings of encouragement, and increase self-esteem

27. 27 Encouragement Encouragement is the most powerful method available for changing a person’s beliefs Helps build self-confidence and stimulates courage Discouragement is the basic condition that prevents people from functioning Courage develops when people Become aware of their strengths Feel that they belong Have hope for their lives

28. 28 Adler’s Contributions Precursor of cognitive-based therapies and the existential approach Emphasis on educational and preventive aspects of psychology – Adler’s ideas have been applied to marriage counseling, family counseling and group work. Influential in the training of counselors for schools and community health services Emphasis on human’s ability to change and focus on positive aspects and strengths of patients

29. 29 Neo-Freudian Minimized role of psycho-sexual stages Culture, spirituality, society also influence personality and behavior Personality development occurs through life-span

30. 30 Carl Jung 1/3 Analytical Psychology Incorporates ideas from history, anthropology, and spirituality Proposed both a personal and collective unconscious Humans strive to achieve harmony between personal conscious and unconscious aspects

31. 31 Carl Jung 2/3 Collective unconscious Inherited experiences of the species Contains archetypes- universal images and symbols Dreams Path to the unconscious Prospective – help prepare for the future Compensatory between opposites

32. 32 Archetypes 3/3 Persona public self or mask Shadow unknown, powerful and feared- negative aspects of the self that we project Animus/Anima masculine/feminine traits Self aspects that strive for integration, harmony and self-actualization (which is purpose of dreams)

33. 33 Other Neo-Freudians Eric From The Art of Loving Karen Horney The Neurotic Personality of our Times Erikson Psycho-social stages Sullivan Inter-personal experiences Otto Rank birth trauma

34. 34 Describe Ruth’s concerns using concepts form Adler’s theory Life tasks (S: 8) Life-style (faulty thinking/strengths) (S: 11,16) Source of inferiority feelings Source of guilty feelings Goals for Therapy (S: 15) Specific Interventions (S: 22)

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