Two views of public attitudes and sophistication
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Two Views of Public Attitudes and Sophistication. I. Elite Driven. Two (or Multi) – Tiered Electorate. Sophistication Information Flow Political Influentials v . Mass Elite to Mass. McClosky. Influentials are More Ideological than Public

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Two Views of Public Attitudes and Sophistication

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Two views of public attitudes and sophistication

Two Views of Public Attitudes and Sophistication


I elite driven

I. Elite Driven


Two or multi tiered electorate

Two (or Multi) – Tiered Electorate

  • Sophistication

  • Information Flow

    • Political Influentialsv. Mass

    • Elite to Mass


Mcclosky

McClosky

  • Influentials are More Ideological than Public

  • Public expresses greater degrees of consensus and support for democratic ideology

  • Support for democratic values is stronger among influentials, but not a consensus

  • American democracy flourishes even though the public does not fully understand or embrace “democratic values”


Converse

Converse

  • Levels of Conceptualization

    AllVoters

    Ideologues2.53.5

    Near-Ideologues912

    Group Interest4245

    Nature of the Times2422

    No Issue Content22.517.5


Understanding recognition of concepts cons and lib

Understanding (Recognition of concepts Cons and Lib)

IIIIIIIVV

Ideologues51%43222

Near-Ideologues294610510

Group Interest134214625

Nature of the Times16407730

No Issue Content102271249


Constraint correlation across issues

Constraint(Correlation Across Issues)

Sample of Congressional Candidates

DomesticForeign

(2)(3) (4)(5)(6)(7)

Employ (1).62.59.35.26.06.17

Education (2).61.53.50.06.35

Housing (3).47.41-.03.30

FEPC (4).47.11.23

Econ Aid (5).19.59

Military Aid (6).32

Isolation (7)


Constraint

Constraint

Sample of Population

DomesticForeign

(2)(3) (4)(5)(6)(7)

Employ (1).45.08.34-.04.10-.22 Education (2).12.29.06.14-.17 Housing (3).08-.06 .02.07

FEPC (4).27.13.02

Econ Aid (5).16.33

Military Aid (6).21

Isolation (7)


Consistency stability

Consistency (Stability)

Correlations Over Time (1958 to 1960)

Party Identification: .72

School Desegregation: .47

FEPC: .42

Guaranteed Employment: .40

Isolationism: .38

Aid to Education: .35

Foreign Ec Aid: .33

Foreign Mil Aid: .31

Federal Housing: .29


Ii mass origins

II. Mass Origins

(Rationalists)


Two views of public attitudes and sophistication

Key

  • Public is attentive

  • Reacts to public debate among electorate

  • Opinions reflect their assessment and judgment of the choices offered them.


Ansolabehere rodden snyder

Ansolabehere, Rodden, Snyder

  • Re-examine Converse

  • Problem of Measurement Error. Bad or Vague Questions.

  • Scales

    • Average a lot of questions of a similar type.

    • Results. Better measures (more stable, more constraint).

  • Voting Equation

    • Issues Matter

    • Two Dimensional Model (what does that imply about constraint?)


Methodologies

METHODOLOGIES


Survey design

Survey Design

  • Questions

    • What does each question measure? What is the variable or concept being measured?

    • How does the question map into the variable? Are all possible values covered?

    • There is no single “silver bullet” question for most variables (even things like income).

  • Questionnaires

    • Multiple Measures

    • Placement and Order. A survey is like a conversation.


Basic statistics

Basic Statistics

  • Proportions and Means (and Standard Deviations)

  • Correlations

  • Scales


Models

Models


Valence issues

Valence Issues

  • Valence Defined

  • Issue Ownership

  • Wedge Issues

  • D+I-R, R+I-D


Positional issues

Positional Issues

  • Spatial Positions of Parties and Candidates

  • Salience of Issues


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