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Marching Toward War. Chapter 13: The Great War Section 1. Learning Targets. I can identify the political and military forces at work in Europe in the late 1800’s. I can list the countries that made up the Triple Entente and Triple Alliance. I can summarize the events that set WWI in motion.

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Marching Toward War

Chapter 13: The Great War

Section 1

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Learning Targets

  • I can identify the political and military forces at work in Europe in the late 1800’s.

  • I can list the countries that made up the Triple Entente and Triple Alliance.

  • I can summarize the events that set WWI in motion.

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Some Background

  • Early 1900s

  • Militarism

    • Many European countries built up their militaries through help of Industrial Revolution

  • Alliances

    • Europeans created secret alliances to protect from neighbors that were stockpiling weapons

  • Nationalism

    • Many Europeans wanted to prove they were the best, even if that meant fighting

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Some Background (cont’d)

  • Imperialism

    • Europeans would fight (compete) over taking new colonies

  • Assassination of Franz

    • When Austrian leader, Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated, it sets things in motion towards war

  • WWI was all about the MANIA

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Rising Tensions in Europe

  • The 1900’s started out peacefully

  • Europeans were increasingly arguing over territories and superiority

    • Nationalism

  • They believed they had to have powerful militaries to protect their colonies and aggression from their neighbors

    • Imperialism

    • Militarism

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Tangled Alliances

  • These tensions created a need for special alliances in case war broke out

    • Germany feared France

      • Germany united with Austria-Hungary and Italy

      • Known as Triple Alliance

    • Germany insults Russia

      • Russia unites with France and Great Britain

      • Known as the Triple Entente

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Crisis in the Balkans

  • Europeans competed for colonies

  • One place was in the Balkans

    • Home to many different ethnic groups

    • Did not like Europeans controlling them

    • Some liked Russia though

  • Austria-Hungary (European)

    • Young leader, Franz, visits one of these territories in the Balkans

    • A Serbian assassin kills him and his wife

    • Austria declares war on Serbia, starting the war!

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Europe Plunges into War

Chapter 13: The Great War

Section 2

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Learning Targets

  • I can describe the reaction to Austria’s declaration of war.

  • I can summarize military events on the Western Front.

  • I can explain the development of the war on the Eastern Front.

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Some Background

  • By 1914, two major alliances had formed

    • Triple Entente

      • France, Great Britain, Russia (allied with Serbia)

    • Triple Alliance

      • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

  • Once Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia…

    • Everyone honored their alliances, and war began

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The Great War Begins

  • When Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia

    • Serbia’s ally, Russia, mobilized its forces on Austria and Germany’s borders

  • Before France could honor its alliance with Russia, Germany declared war on France

    • Soon Great Britain would honor its alliance with France and Russia by declaring war on Germany

  • Many believed the war would be quick

    • They were terribly wrong…

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A Bloody Stalemate

  • The Western Front

    • Deadlocked region of Northern France

    • Germans had hoped to defeat the French and British quickly here, and focus on the Russians

      • This failed

    • Trench Warfare developed

      • Thousands died, and no one really advanced

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The Battle on the Eastern Front

  • Border of Russia, Austria-Hungary and Germany

    • Russians and Serbs fought Austrians and Germans

    • A more mobile war

    • Russia invaded Germany and Austria

      • Soon would be pushed back

    • Russia tied up Germany on Eastern Front

      • But Russia couldn’t stay in the fight very long