The industrial age
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THE INDUSTRIAL AGE. INTRODUCTION: -1850-1940 economic growth -Industrialization: age of machinery -living and working conditions changed What was the Industrial Revolution and how did it affect people’s life from 1850 to 1940 1/ Definition 2/ Changes: positive effects and drawbacks

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THE INDUSTRIAL AGE

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The industrial age

THE INDUSTRIAL AGE


The industrial age

INTRODUCTION:

-1850-1940 economic growth

-Industrialization: age of machinery

-living and working conditions changed

What was the Industrial Revolution and how did it affect people’s life from 1850 to 1940

1/ Definition

2/ Changes: positive effects and drawbacks

3/ How did low class people try to improve their condition ?


The industrial age

I/ What was the Industrial revolution ?

A/ A favourable context

1- Demographic dynamism ( Source 1)

How did the European population evolve from 1750 to 1850?

The curves raise/ climb. To increase- To double - To reach – To stay stable- To stagnate- To reach a peak

Why ?

Death rate – Birth rate- Natural increase- demographic transition – fertility index - immigration – technical progress

2- the Agricultural revolution

New techniques : increased yield, high yield varieties, four-field crop rotation, selective breeding

Mechanization: ex: mechanical seeder by Jethro Tull

Drift from the land

More investment


The industrial age

  • B/ Definition

  • Read source 2 and explain what was the industrial revolution

  • Move from the Domestic system to the Factory system

  • 1 or 2 revolutions: 2 different points of view

  • Drastic changes in producing things thanks to new techniques, new machines and inventions run with new energy resources: coal ( late 18th C to 20th C ) , oil and electricity ( end 19th C to today)

  • Use source 3 to give precise example of drastic changes brought by this revolution


The industrial age

II/ What changes did it bring ?

A/ Rivalries in Europe: source 4

A histogram / bar graph, a leading position , a fall-back position, to catch up with, to be surpassed by, a sluggish economy ( à la traîne), to gain market shares, to compete with.

Assertion of the UK: workshop of the World- leadership – Rivalries-

Lack of investment- Joined-stock societies

B/ Case study of one positive effect: Impact on railways

From bottom to top :

The UK, The US, France, Germany, Russia, Japan and other countries.


The industrial age

Newspapers could be sent from the capital all over the country.

Seaside towns developed; the railways made cheap day trips possible

People were able to travel greater distances for leisure & to work

Canals & stage coach companies could not compete & went bankrupt.

Social & Economic Impact of the Railways

Industry grew, because the railways needed coal & iron; railways in return allowed factories to transport their goods to markets.

People became more interested in politics & this led to the growth of political parties

Townspeople were able to receive meat, fish, milk and vegetables brought in whilst they were still fresh by the railways.

The Post was speeded up


How did railways create more jobs

Goods can now be sold for less.

Railways make the moving of goods cheaper.

This is called the Cycle of Prosperity

More people can afford to buy these goods

More people with jobs means …

More goods are sold & so more need to be produced.

Businessmen employ more workers.

How did railways create more jobs?


The industrial age

C / Industrialisation went along with urbanisation


The industrial age1

THE INDUSTRIAL AGE

Urbanisation and industrialisation


The industrial age

We are going to work on iconographic documents to show the link between industrialisation and urbanisation.

We are going to work on the British example, through three different maps.

So, first of all let’s recap the method to present documents.


The industrial age

TO PRESENT A DOCUMENT, YOU MUST IDENTIFY:

-The nature

-The topic

-The author

-The source

-The date

-The context


The industrial age

Let’s see the document we have here:

Present the documents

1-Describe the evolution of density increase in the UK from 1801 to 1851.

2-What about industrial centres in the UK? Where were they located? Why?

3-What is the link between industrialisation and density increase?


The industrial age

PRESENTATION OF THE DOCUMENT

Nature:


The industrial age

PRESENTATION OF THE DOCUMENT

Nature: It’s composed of three black and white maps of the UK. The keys combine colours and spots.


The industrial age

PRESENTATION OF THE DOCUMENT

Nature: It’s composed of three black and white maps of the UK. The keys combine colours, stripes and spots.

Topic:


The industrial age

PRESENTATION OF THE DOCUMENT

Nature: It’s composed of three black and white maps of the UK. The keys combine colours, stripes and spots.

Topic: This document deals with industrial centres and density increase in the UK from 1801 to 1851.


The industrial age

PRESENTATION OF THE DOCUMENT

Nature: It’s composed of three black and white maps of the UK. The keys combine colours, stripes and spots.

Topic: This document deals with industrial centres and density increase in the UK from 1801 to 1851.

Author and source:


The industrial age

PRESENTATION OF THE DOCUMENT

Nature: It’s composed of three black and white maps of the UK. The keys combine colours, stripes and spots.

Topic: This document deals with industrial centres and density increase in the UK from 1801 to 1851.

Author and source: It’s extracted from “ Western Civilisation” by Dennis Sherman and published by Mac Graw Hill HigherEducation


The industrial age

PRESENTATION OF THE DOCUMENT

Nature: It’s composed of three black and white maps of the UK. The keys combine colours, stripes and spots.

Topic: This document deals with industrial centres and density increase in the UK from 1801 to 1851.

Author and source: It’s extracted from “ Western Civilisation” by Dennis Sherman and published by Mac Graw Hill HigherEducation

Date:


The industrial age

PRESENTATION OF THE DOCUMENT

Nature: It’s composed of three black and white maps of the UK. The keys combine colours, stripes and spots.

Topic: This document deals with industrial centres and density increase in the UK from 1801 to 1851.

Author and source: It’s extracted from “ Western Civilisation” by Dennis Sherman and published by Mac Graw Hill HigherEducation

Date: The source is a contemporary book but the subject it deals with dates from the mid 19th century.


The industrial age

PRESENTATION OF THE DOCUMENT

Nature: It’s composed of three black and white maps of the UK. The keys combine colours, stripes and spots.

Topic: This document deals with industrial centres and density increase in the UK from 1801 to 1851.

Author and source: It’s extracted from “ Western Civilisation” by Dennis Sherman and published by Mac Graw Hill HigherEducation

Date: The source is a contemporary book but the subject it deals with dates from the mid 19th century.

Context:


The industrial age

PRESENTATION OF THE DOCUMENT

Nature: It’s composed of three black and white maps of the UK. The keys combine colours and spots.

Topic: This document deals with industrial centres and density increase in the UK from 1801 to 1851.

Author and source: It’s extracted from “ Western Civilisation” by Dennis Sherman and published by Mac Graw Hill HigherEducation

Date: The source is a contemporary book but the subject it deals with dates from the mid 19th century.

Context: Western Europe was concerned with the Industrial Revolution. It meant that factories spread quickly. Production increased too thanks to the use of new machines and energy resources.


The industrial age

1-Describe the evolution of population density in the UK from 1801 to 1851.


The industrial age

2-What about industrial centres in the UK? Where were they located? Why?


The industrial age

3-What is the link between industrialisation and density increase?


The industrial age

And what about the other highly populated areas?


The industrial age

So, what is the link between industrialisation and density increase? Explain this link.

Read Text 8 and describe living conditions in the industrial city.

To save, to rent, a flat, housing, an expensive rent, slums, overcrowded, town-dwellers=city-dwellers, newcomers, to fulfill a dream to make a dream come true, to meet someone’s expectations, low-standard flats, a two-class society, destitute people, well-off people, wealthy=rich.


The industrial age

D / About working conditions…

Look at source 9 and describe workers’ conditions in the mines.

Source 9

From: “Le magazine pittoresque” 1843

To walk on all four, to be skinny, to be bony, to starve, to be dressed in rags, to suffocate, coal dust, lungs infection, harsh = tough, a trolley, to push, to pull, a gale, to crawl.


The industrial age

At that time, there were no laws to forbid child labor/ labour. In the UK it’s only in 1833 that children under nine were not allowed to work and only in 1847 kids under 15 were limited to work “only” 10 hour-days.

Read Documents 8 and 9 and comment on kids’ working conditions in the industry.

In the UK, the government set up WORKHOUSES in 1834: over there, poor people could work in return of board and lodging.

In practice was seemed to be a social law, was in fact a means to take poor out of the streets because they gave a bad image to the cities.

In workhouses, people starved, were exploited and usually beaten up by overlookers/ overseers.


The industrial age

III/Some low-class workers tried to improve their conditions

A/ Case study: Chartism in the UK

Word box:

A representative- A petition- Petitioners- Universal suffrage-Wealthy- Labour/labor- Reward- A workhouse

Chartism was the first working-class movement in England which organised itself in the mid 1830’s so as to change the parliamentary system to give better conditions and rights to the working-class.

The « chartists » as they were called drew up their claims into the « people’s charter ».Their movement was to no avail= in vain

Let’s see what they claimed:

-less tax to pay

-higher wages

-universal suffrage and secret suffrage

-the right to have paid representatives in the British Parliament


The industrial age

B/ Trade-unionism

A pressure group- A counter-power- A lobby- To take industrial action ( mouvement social) - Union fees- To be on the dole- To strike-To demonstrate- A membership- A shop stewart ( délégué du personnel)- Legislation.

It took a while for unions to be fully accepted: at first they were only tolerated.

Below are some dates to remember:

-1871: trade union act in the UK

-1878: Unions accepted in Germany

-1884: Waldeck-Rousseau act in France: unions are finally allowed

-1886: American Federation of Labor created in the USA

Finally look at source 12 and list some of the advancement brought by trade unionism: 3-4 you can remember for the test.


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