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Estrangement and Unity. Are Human Beings Estranged in Essence?. Is it possible to reconcile racial differences? Harmony and integration or uneasiness and suspicion? Individuality versus community Hobbes – psychological individualism – ontological separation as part of materialist philosophy

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are human beings estranged in essence
Are Human Beings Estranged in Essence?
  • Is it possible to reconcile racial differences? Harmony and integration or uneasiness and suspicion?
  • Individuality versus community
  • Hobbes – psychological individualism – ontological separation as part of materialist philosophy
  • Aristotle – man is a political animal and only a beast or a god can live outside the bounds of society
slide3
If human beings are not estranged in essence, why are there so many divisions and conflicts among them?
  • St Augustine – Original Sin – human will – unbridgeable state without Grace - Conservative
  • Rousseau – Institutions of property and centralized power – humans can overcome this estrangement - Radical
can estrangement be overcome through reason
Can Estrangement Be Overcome through Reason?
  • “Come, let us reason together” – the motto of the West
  • Can reason subordinate the superior? – Callicles and Thrasymachus
  • Reason as the basis of community – Plato – the Stoics
  • Edmund Burke – Customs, prejudice and traditions are superior to reason – estrangement is overcome through adherence to ancient customs, traditions, and institutions
can estrangement be overcome through reason5
Can Estrangement Be Overcome through Reason?
  • Moral absolutism versus moral relativism
  • Uniformity versus organic unity
  • Radicalism versus conservatism
  • Feminism embraces intuition above rationality – the specific versus the universal
is religion in some form needed for overcoming estrangement
Is Religion in Some Form Needed for Overcoming Estrangement?
  • The power of humanism and the rejection of religion
  • Unity among human beings depends upon unity with the divine – Classical and Christian philosophy
  • Platonic-Stoic bridge with the divine relies on human initiative
  • Christianity – seeks God’s action to bridge a gap unbridgeable by human efforts
is religion in some form needed for overcoming estrangement7
Is Religion in Some Form Needed for Overcoming Estrangement?
  • Fyodor Dostoevsky contrasts man-god and God-man
  • The man-god will not be compassionate but will be perverse and destructive
  • The God-man/Christ – Divine companionship saves us from this dark abyss – rejection of Christ sends us to our doom
should all people s be united in a single global society
Should All People’s Be United in a Single Global Society?
  • Small Is Beautiful – Athens – Rousseau
  • Universal Empire – Romans – Christians – Mongols
  • Nation- State – Modern Solution – GWF Hegel
should all class distinctions be abolished
Should All Class Distinctions Be Abolished?
  • Radical – Marx
  • Conservative – Burke
  • Liberal – Roosevelt and Kennedy
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