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Erik Erikson and Life Cycle. Life History. Born in June 15, 1902. A Danish mother and German father. Raised as a Jew, married a Christian and converted to Christianity. At 18, he graduated from a classical gymnasium. He studied Latin, Greek, German Literature and Ancient History.

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life history
Life History
  • Born in June 15, 1902. A Danish mother and German father.
  • Raised as a Jew, married a Christian and converted to Christianity.
  • At 18, he graduated from a classical gymnasium. He studied Latin, Greek, German Literature and Ancient History.
  • In 1927, got training from Anna Freud on psychoanalysis.
  • Married to Joan in 1929, who became her research partner.
life history1
Life History
  • In 1933, he became the full member of Vienna Psychoanalytical Society.
  • Joined Yale Medical School in 1936. Studied psychological symptoms, including the lack of self-image or identity, that were related to a sense of loss of cultural tradition.
  • Continued Research on Development stages of Life, since 1940. He studied the lives of Martin Luther and Mahatma Gandhi of India.
  • Passed away in 1997.
an epigenetic model of human development
An Epigenetic Model of Human Development
  • Named by Erikson, Epigenesis (epi means uponand genesis means emergence) was the first psychological theory to detail the human life cycle, from infancy to adulthood and old age; Epigenesis suggests that each element develops on top of other parts.
stage 1 basic trust vs basic mistrust
Stage 1- Basic Trust Vs Basic Mistrust
  • Age: 0 to 1 year old
  • Psychosocial Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Virtue: Hope
  • Corresponds to Freud\'s oral stage centers around the infant\'s basic needs being met by the parents.
  • Primary Caregivers give trust or mistrust
stage 2 autonomy vs shame doubt
Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
  • Age: Toddlers, 2 to 3 years
  • Main Question: "Can I do things myself or must I always rely on others?"
  • Virtue: Will
  • As the child gains control over eliminative functions and motor abilities, they begin to explore their surroundings.
stage 3 initiative vs guilt
Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt
  • Age : Preschool, 4 to 6 years
  • Main Question: "Am I good or am I bad?"
  • Virtue: Purpose
  • Related Elements in Society: ideal prototypes/roles
  • The child is learning to master the world around him or her.
  • Guilt is a new emotion and is confusing to the child.
stage 4 industry vs inferiority
Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority
  • Age : Childhood, 7 to 12 years.
  • Main Question: "Am I successful or worthless?"
  • Virtue: Competence
  • Related Elements in Society: division of labor
  • Erikson viewed the elementary school years as critical for the development of self-confidence.
stage 5 identity vs role confusion
Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion
  • Age : Adolescents, 13 to 19 years.
  • Main Question: "Who am I and where am I going?"
  • Ego quality: Fidelity
  • Related Elements in Society: Ideology
  • Child develops a sense of sexual identity. Sometimes the roles becomes confusing.
stage 6 intimacy vs isolation
Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation
  • Age : Young Adults, 20 to 34 years.
  • Main Question: "Am I loved and wanted?" or "Shall I share my life with someone or live alone?"
  • Ego quality: Love
  • Related Elements in Society: patterns of cooperation (often marriage)
stage 7 generativity vs stagnation
Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation
  • Age : Middle Adulthood, 35 to 65 years.
  • Main Question: "Will I produce something of real value?"
  • Virtue: Care
  • Related Elements in Society: parenting, educating, or other productive social involvement
stage 8 ego integrity vs despair
Stage 8: Ego Integrity vs. Despair
  • Age : Seniors, 65 years onwards.
  • Main Question: "Have I lived a full life?"
  • Virtue: Wisdom
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