Application of the urbanized MM5 to the Houston-Galveston region
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Application of the urbanized MM5 to the Houston-Galveston region by R. Bornstein* , H. Taha, R. Balmori, SJSU S. Dupont, J. Ching, RTP/EPA/NOAA A. Martilli, UBC S. Stetson, SWS, Inc. D. Byun, U of Houston S. Burian, U of Utah [email protected] 27 th NATO/CCMS/ITM Meeting

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Application of the urbanized MM5 to the Houston-Galveston region by

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Application of the urbanized mm5 to the houston galveston region by

Application of the urbanized MM5 to the Houston-Galveston region

by

R. Bornstein*, H. Taha, R. Balmori, SJSU

S. Dupont, J. Ching, RTP/EPA/NOAA

A. Martilli, UBC

S. Stetson, SWS, Inc.

D. Byun, U of Houston

S. Burian, U of Utah

[email protected]

27th NATO/CCMS/ITM Meeting

Banff, Alberta, Canada

October 2004


Outline

OUTLINE

  • PROJECT GOALS

  • uMM5 CONFIGURATION

  • SYNOPTIC SUMMARY: 700 MB & SFC

  • DOMAIN 1: MM5 WINDS VS NWS

    • MM5 WINDS (MESO CONVENTION)

      • FULL BARB = 1 M/S

      • FLAG = 5 M/S

  • DOMAINS 2-4: MM5 WINDs

  • DOMAIN 5: uMM5 TEMPs & UHIs

  • CONCLUSION


Application of the urbanized mm5 to the houston galveston region by

Project Summary:

  • Overall: Evaluate impacts of de- & re-forestation on Houston O3 levels (Byun, USFS)

  • SIPEpisode: Aug-Sept Texas2000 in Houston

  • MetModel: EPA uMM5 (Martilli, Dupont, Ching)

  • Improved: uMM5 input (Burian, Stetson)

  • Machine: SJSU 96 CPU cluster (Balmori)

  • Evaluate (Taha):

    • uMM5 vs. MM5 performance

    • uMM5 sensitivity to LU/LC changes


Application of the urbanized mm5 to the houston galveston region by

5-domain configuration, D5 is “urbanized”

Resolution: 108, 36, 12, 4, 1 km

Grid dimensions(excluding surface):

43×53×28, 55×55×28, 100×100×28,

136×151×28, 133×141×48.


Urbanization techniques

Urbanization Techniques

  • Urbanize: surface, SBL, & PBL momentum,

    thermo, & TKE Eqs

  • Allows prediction within UCL

  • From vegetation canopy-model of Yamada (1982)

  • Veg parameters replaced with urban (GIS/RS) terms

    • Brown and Williams 1998

    • Masson 2000

    • Sievers 2001

    • Martilli et al. 2001 (in TVM)

    • Dupont et al. 2003 (in MM5)

    • LLNL 2004


Application of the urbanized mm5 to the houston galveston region by

 From Masson (2000)


Application of the urbanized mm5 to the houston galveston region by

uMM5 input + as f (x, y) in D-05

(from Burian, Stetson, USFS)

  • land use (38 categories)

  • roughness elements

  • anthropogenic heat as f (t)

  • vegetation and building heights

  • paved surface fractions

  • drag-force coefficients for buildings & vegy

  • building height-to-width, wall-to-plan,

    & impervious-area ratios

  • building frontal, building plan, & and rooftop

    area-densities

  • vegetation top- and area-densities

  • ε, cρ, α, etc. of walls and roofs


From stetson high resolution houston z o data

From Stetson: high- resolution Houston zo data


Application of the urbanized mm5 to the houston galveston region by

Base-case (current) vegetation cover (urban min)


Application of the urbanized mm5 to the houston galveston region by

Modeled increases in vegetation cover (urban max)

Values are 0.1 of those in previous chart


Mm5 vs umm5 preview of results

MM5 vs. uMM5: Preview of Results

  • uMM5 takes longer than MM5

    • with 1-CPU: 8 times longer

    • with 96-CPU: only 3 times longer

    • each-day of our uMM5 simulation took

      • 16.0 days with 1-CPU

      • 4.5 hours with 96-CPU

  • uMM5 gives better:

    TKE, UHIs, & winds


Synoptic preview

Synoptic Preview

  • Pre-episode day

    • 700 hPa: flow NE of Houston was from SE

    • Sfc: Sea-breeze frontal formation

  • Episode day

    • 700 hPa: flow now from NE 

      opposition to onshore sea-breeze flow

    • Sfc: offshore cold-core low forms 

      along-shore (NE to SW) coastal-flow 

      ozone episode

  • NWS vs. MM5

    • NWS charts show only subtle changes

    • MM5 provides the details


1200 utc 0700 dst 24 aug

1200 UTC (0700 DST) 24 AUG

  • 700 mb

  • Pre-episode AM

  • SE flow NE of Houston


1200 utc 0700 dst 25 aug

1200 UTC (0700 DST) 25 AUG

  • 700 mb

  • Episode AM

  • Opposing NE flow NE of Houston

  • Will cause con with sfc SB V


1200 utc 0700 dst 25 aug1

1200 UTC (0700 DST) 25 AUG

  • Sfc chart

  • Episode AM

  • Not much detail

  • Similar to day b/f & after


Mm5 results preview

MM5 results: Preview

  • Domain 1:

    • Captures NWS synoptic features (change in 700 hPa flow-direction NE of Houston)

    • Indicates off-shore feature (cold-core L) not on NWS charts

  • Domains 2-4: shows details of off-shore L

  • Domain: 5: shows UHI effects


Coastal cold core l episode day 3 pm domains 1 3

Coastal Cold-Core L Episode day 3 PM Domains 1-3


Domain 4 3 pm note cold core l off of houston on o 3 day 25 th

Domain 4 (3 PM) : Note cold-core L off of Houston on O3 day (25th)


Domain 4 weak sea breeze meets inland ne flow

4th (MM5) & 5th (uMM5) Domains: Non-episode day at 2 PM

Domain 4: weak sea breeze meets inland NE-flow

Domain 5: Finer details of sea breeze and NE-flow


Domain 3 12 km 4 pm cold core l from where

Domain 3 (12 km) 4 PM: cold-core L (from where?)


1 km umm5 11 pm nocturnal uhi

1 km uMM5 11 PM: nocturnal UHI


Application of the urbanized mm5 to the houston galveston region by

1 km uMM5 3 PM: daytime UHI


1 km domain end of daytime uhi 8 pm 21 aug

1 km Domain: end of daytime UHI (8 PM 21 Aug)

  • Upper L: MM5

  • Upper R: uMM5

  • Lower L: uMM5-MM5

  • uMM5 1.5 K warmer (stronger UHI)

  • Blob is LU/LC error


1km domain end of night uhi 9 am 22 aug

1km Domain: end of night UHI: 9 AM 22 Aug

  • Upper L: MM5

  • Upper R: uMM5

  • Lower L: MM5-uMM5

  • uMM5 1.5 K cooler (weaker UHI)


Explanation of umm5 uhi uci

Explanation of uMM5 UHI & UCI

  • Wet soil TI > urban TI > dry soil TI

  • Urban an area surrounded by wet soil thus has

    • Daytime UHI (as urban area warms faster than soil)

    • Nighttime UCI (as urban area cools faster than soil)

  • Reverse true with dry rural soil

  • Current results thus consistent with wet rural soil (as expected) around Houston, as uMM5 produced daytime warming & nighttime cooling over urban Houston


Ongoing future efforts

Ongoing & future efforts

  • Additional analysis of current simulation results

  • Additional simulations on new 106 CPU cluster

  • Use planned 2005-6 Houston field-study (?) data to determine atm and (GIS/RS) urban parameters


The end

THE END


Domain 1 7 am 24 aug

Domain 1: 7 AM 24 AUG

  • 700 mb

  • Pre-episode

  • Weak off- shore L (not in NWS)

  • Weak NE flow NE of city


Domain 1 0700 dst 25 aug

Domain 1: 0700 DST 25 AUG

  • 700 mb

  • Episode AM

  • Stronger off-shore L

  • Stronger NE ff NE of city

  • Will cause con with SB ff


Domain 1 1800 dst 23 aug

Domain 1: 1800 DST 23 AUG

  • Sfc chart

  • Pre-episode

  • On-shore SB

  • Not much difference at same time on next 2 days

  • Need to see inner domains


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