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D-Day June 6 th , 1944. Stephen K. & Dan T. Ms. Pojer WXY Sophomore EHAP. Essential Question. How did the Allies’ use of spies and deception lead to the overall success of the D-Day invasion?. Spies. “Garbo”. A.K.A. Juan Pujol Garcia. Code named after the famous actress, Gretta Garbo.

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D-Day June 6 th , 1944

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D day june 6 th 1944

D-Day

June 6th, 1944

Stephen K. & Dan T.

Ms. Pojer WXYSophomore EHAP


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Essential Question

How did the Allies’ use of spies and deception lead to the overall success of the D-Day invasion?


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Spies


Garbo

“Garbo”


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A.K.A.

Juan Pujol Garcia

Code named after the famous actress, Gretta Garbo


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Background

  • Born in Catalan, Spain in 1912.

  • Fought under Franco for fascism in the Spanish Civil War

  • Developed hatred towards fascism. Especially towards Nazi Germany


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Background (Cont.)

  • Germany’s remaining adversary

  • Garbo’s wife asked British officers to employ him as a spy

    • REJECTED

      • Needs a plan

Britain


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His plan

1. Establish himself as a German spy

  • Operating in Lisbon, he told Germans he was in British

  • Fabricated reports about shipping movements

  • Germans buy it (100%)


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(2)

  • Return back to Britain intelligence services to offer his services

  • ACCEPTED!!As a British double agent

  • Joins the MI5 (military intelligence) in 1942


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Garbo’s Role

  • Sent a current stream of misinformation over the radio

  • Sent reports and images of troop movement in the South-east of England, opposite Pas de Calais

  • Military infrastructure was reported to try and convince the Germans that the army was weak and the attack would be later in the year


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Garbo

Despite defeat at Normandy, Hitler still trusted Garbo as his own spy and awarded him the German Iron Cross award


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Other D-Day Spies

Brutus

Mutt and Jeff


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Roman Czerniawski (Brutus)

  • Czerniawski began his career as a Polish airforce officer

  • Created an allied espionage network code named Interaille

  • He was sold out by a member of his group and sent on a mission to England as a German spy

  • Became a double agent code named “Brutus” under the Double Cross System


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Roman Czerniawski (Brutus)

  • Double Cross System was an anti-espionage and deception program run by the British MI5 military intelligence department

  • Czerniawski was involved in that program as he was a captured Nazi spy who provided faulty information to the Nazis in order to deceive them of the true plans of the allies

  • The work of double agents such as Czerniawski was vital in deceiving the Germans with regards to the inevitable European invasion


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Heldge Moe & Tor Glad (Mutt and Jeff)

  • Norwegian

  • Members of the MI5 Double Cross System

  • After being fetched up on a beach, they turned themselves in to the German police

  • From there they reported German Military traffic, deployments, and civilian morale.


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Heldge Moe & Tor Glad (Mutt and Jeff)

  • British Spy officers were also able to relay false information to Mutt and Jeff. They hoped that the Germans would hear this information and believe it. THEY DID!


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Deception


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In War time, truth is so precious that she should always be surrounded by a bodyguard of lies.


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Tehran Conference

  • “Big Three” Leaders consisting of Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill discuss the allies opening up a second front

  • Leaders agree to deceive the Germans about the true nature of the European invasion.


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Five Fold Deception Plan

  • Allied leaders plan a series of pseudo invasions to throw the Germans off guard.

  • The Germans would learn of these faulty plans but lacked the military intelligence to decipher which ones were simply decoys.


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Five Fold Deception Plan

  • VENDETTA and FERDINAND= false invasions of the west Mediterranean

  • IRONSIDE = Another false invasion that led the Germans to believe the would be attacked at the French Bay Biscay


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Five Fold Deception Plan

  • ZEPPELIN = False invasion of the Balkans in Eastern Europe

    • This false invasion was so deceptive that many historians believe Churchill truly wanted the Allies to invade there.

  • FORTITUDE NORTH = Pseudo invasion of German territory via Norway


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Operation Fortitude (South)

Goal: Convince the Germans that an invasion would come from Pas de Calais.

Pas de Calais was the logical point of attack because it is the closest area from France to England.


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“Operation Fortitude” (South)Operation Quicksilver

Goal: Convince the Germans that the allies had two army groups

21st army group – Montgomery (real)

1st U.S. Army Group (FUSAG) – Patton (FAKE)


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21st Army Group


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Patton’s “Ghost” Army

  • Allies needed to make Pas de Calais invasion seem imminent and realistic.

  • Put highly respected General George Patton in charge of this completely fake army called FUSAG.

  • Army had fake tanks and everything that would make it appear as if it was about to embark on an invasion of Hitler’s Fortress Europa.


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FUSAG

German aerial view

Inflatable tank

Dummy landing craft


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Further Deception

  • Captured German General Hans Kramer was to be repatriated in an exchange.

  • While going through England, he saw the 21st army group that was the real company to embark on the invasion.

  • Allies mislead him on his location so that he thought he was seeing them in Kent where the Germans thought the forces were located.


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D-Day Leadership


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D-Day Leaders (ALLIES)

Gen. Omar Bradley US

Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower US

Marshall Montgomery Br.

Gen. George S. Patton US

Lt. Miles Dempsey Br.

General Spaatz US


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D-Day Leaders

General Omar Bradley

  • Commander of the imperative 1st Army.

  • Commanded three corps directed at Utah and Omaha beach.

  • Men under his command grew to 900,000 (largest ever under one commander).

  • Became the first chairman of NATO.


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D-Day Leaders

LT. Miles Dempsey

  • Commander of the 2nd British Army (British, Canadian, and Polish forces).

  • Landed successfully at Gold, Juno, and Sword beaches.

  • Captured the French city of Caen after success at Normandy.


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D-Day LeadersGeneral Carl Spaatz

  • Commander of the US Strategic Air Forces in Europe (USSTAF).

  • Worked with British air commander, Marshal Trafford Leigh-Mallory.

  • Together they strategically bombed German oil rigs and army bases near the English Chanel to help with the overall success of Operation Overlord.


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D-Day LeadersGeneral Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • Made Supreme Allied Commander – early 1944.

  • In complete control of the planning and execution of the Allied invasion at Normandy.

  • A month after Normandy, oversaw the successful invasion of Southern France.


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D-Day LeadersGeneral Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • The success of the invasion was far from a certainty in Eisenhower's mind.

  • In advance, he wrote a short speech for the potentially catastrophic failure.


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D-Day LeadersGeneral Dwight D. Eisenhower

Our landings have failed and I have withdrawn the troops. My decision to attack at this time and place was based on the best information available. The troops, the air and the navy did all that bravery could do. If any blame or fault attaches to the attempt it is mine alone.


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"to preserve … our civilization and to set free a suffering humanity." - Franklin D. Roosevelt

“The whole of the South Coast of England is a bastion of defense against the invasion of Hitler; you've got to turn it into the springboard for our attack." - Winston Churchill

“I have full confidence in your courage, devotion to duty, and skill in battle. We will accept nothing less than full victory.”

- General Dwight D. Eisenhower


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D-Day LeadersField Marshall Rommel

  • Commander of the 7th German Army.

  • Told Hitler about the severity of the invasion but was rejected.

  • Planned with other officers to possibly overthrow Hitler in hopes of negotiating with the Allies.

  • Rommel accused of assassination attempt on Hitler—Suicide!


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Germans Anticipated attack in 1944


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Successes


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D-DayJune 6, 1944

  • The invasion would begin on the beaches of Normandy, France.

  • The largest amphibious force in the history of warfare.

  • Considered by some to be the greatest military achievement of the 20th century.


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Preparation

  • 9 battleships

  • 23 Cruisers

  • 104 destroyers

  • 71 U-boats

  • 150,000 troops set to cross the English Channel in the invasion of Hitler’s fortress of Europe


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Real D-Day Planning Map


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Preparation


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Preparation


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General Overview of Invasion


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German Defense System


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Invasion at Utah Beach


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Deception Works Again

  • German counter-attack to initial invasion were delayed because of internal arguments among the German high-command.

  • Fortitude South had been so successful in deceiving the German’s that they were convinced the main invasion of France was still to come from the Pas-De-Calais.


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I remember seeing all the dead bodies littering the beach. Some were killed on the first landing. They were fodder for the Germans gun. Others were washed in by the tide where their boats had been caught.

- Sr. Bernard Morgan


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“Welcome to Hell”


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Fatalities

4,500 Allied and American troops dead


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National D-day Memorial Foundation


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D-Day: Turning the Tide of War

  • Invasion of Normandy was the decisive Allied victory that turned the tide of World War 2.

  • Success of the invasion was necessary for the Allies to launch an attack to liberate France.

  • Allies moved permanently to the offensive as the armies marched through Europe to liberate the other conquered nations.


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Hitler’s “Fortess Europa” June 1944


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VE Day: May 8th 1945


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What if the Invasion of Normandy had failed?

  • Had the invasion failed, the repercussion would have been both shocking and devastating:

    • The war in Europe would have lasted at least a year longer than it did.

    • The longer the war lasted, the more Jews that would have been executed, probably wiping out the last of them.


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What if the Invasion of Normandy had failed?

  • The atomic bomb, created in the summer of 1945, would have been used on Germany first instead of Japan.

  • A destroyed Germany would have allowed an opportunity seeking Russian army to role right through Europe, leaving Communism in their wake.


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What if the Invasion of Normandy had failed?

  • A failure at Normandy could have even lead to the Germans prevailing in the war.

  • A surrender could have been agreed upon with most of Europe remaining under fascist control.


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