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Unit 1 Notes. Safety. Unit 1 Learning Targets. I can locate, identify, and use all of the safety features in the classroom. I can use a NFPA label to identify the degree of harmfulness of a given chemical. I can locate and use a MSDS.

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Unit 1 Notes

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Unit 1 Notes

Safety


Unit 1 Learning Targets

  • I can locate, identify, and use all of the safety features in the classroom.

  • I can use a NFPA label to identify the degree of harmfulness of a given chemical.

  • I can locate and use a MSDS.

  • I can identify different pieces of chemical equipment and what each piece is used for.

  • I can use proper techniques to light a Bunsen burner.

  • I can explain the difference between a scientific theory and a scientific law.


Target 1

I can locate, identify, and use all of the safety features in the classroom.


Safety Gear

  • Safety Goggles

  • Lab Aprons

  • These are to be worn at ALL times during EVERY chemistry lab.

  • Failure to do this will result in removal from the lab and an administrative referral.


Locating Safety Equipment

  • Broken glassware container

  • Ventilation Hood

  • MSDS

  • Emergency Gas Shutoff Button

  • Fire Extinguisher

  • Emergency Eyewash

  • Goggles/Aprons


What are they used for?

  • Broken glassware container – You don’t want to put anyone in danger while emptying the trash

  • Ventilation (fume) hood – the fans suck up the air so that you don’t inhale toxic fumes.

  • MSDS – have safety information about a chemical.

  • Emergency gas button – if a flame gets close to the gas nozzle, hit this button to turn off the gas and prevent an explosion.


What are they used for?

  • Fire extinguisher – extinguish fires…

  • Emergency eyewash – to rinse your eyes if you get a chemical in them.

  • Goggles – protect your eyes from chemicals

  • Lab aprons – protect your clothing from chemicals.


How do they work?

  • Add how to use the following safety equipment to your notes:

  • Ventilation (fume) hood

  • Emergency gas button

  • Fire extinguisher

  • Emergency eyewash


Let’s Practice with some WS’s!

Laboratory Safety WS, Safety Equipment WS, Safety Scavenger Hunt


Target 2

I can use a NFPA label to identify the degree of harmfulness of a given chemical.


NFPA Labels

  • National Fire Prevention Agency

  • It’s a color-coded label found on each chemical.

  • Each section indicates a certain hazard about the chemical.


The colored sections


Reading the label


Let’s Practice with a WS!

NFPA Labels WS!


Target 3

I can locate and use a MSDS.


MSDS

  • Material Safety Data Sheets

  • Has many sections that contain information about the chemical.

  • Section numbers may vary depending on the brand/type of MSDS.


Time for WS’s and an activity!

MSDS Sections WS, MSDS Practice WS, Material Safety Data Sheets WS, Oops! I spilled it again activity!


Target 4

I can identify different pieces of chemical equipment and what each piece is used for.


Erlenmeyer Flask

  • The Erlenmeyer flask is the most common flask in the chemistry lab. It is used to contain reaction solutions.


Pipette

  • Like an eyedropper, it is used to add small amounts of liquid.

  • Some have measurements (0.5 mL, 1 mL) so that you can measure and add small amounts.


Graduated Cylinder

  • Used to make accurate measurements of liquid volumes. The bumper on larger cylinders is to prevent breakage if tipped over. Keep it near the top.


Beaker

  • Beakers are the most versatile glassware in the lab and can be used for just about anything. The volume measurements on beakers should be used only for “ballpark” estimates.


Beaker brush

  • Used to clean beakers.

  • They are attached to every sink in the room.


Funnel

  • Besides helping to direct the pour of liquids into narrow openings, you can also use filter paper with the funnel to filter out solids from a liquid.


Test tubes

  • Test tubes: Used to mix or heat small amounts of chemicals/solutions.


Test tube brush

  • Cleans test tubes

  • There is one attached to every sink in the room.


Test tube holder

  • Used to hold test tubes for short periods of “gentle” heating.


Test tube clamp

  • When attached to the ring stand, this clamp is used to hold a large test tube above the lab table.


Ring stand

  • You can clamp things (such as the metal ring, test tube clamp, etc) onto it in order to hold glassware over the lab table.


Wire gauze

  • Used as a support for beakers when placed across a metal ring.


Striker

  • Used to light a Bunsen burner.

  • It is NOT a toy or noisemaker during lab (you will wear down the flint).


Bunsen burner & tubing

  • Provides a flame for heating substances.

  • Tubing directs gas into the Bunsen burner.


Metal ring

  • The metal ring can be used with wire gauze to support a beaker or flask above the lab table.


Scupula

  • Used to scoop solid chemicals out of a container.

  • Tip the container sideways with the beaker directly under the container.

  • It’s always better to take several small scoops than one large scoop. You are less likely to spill this way, and we don’t want to spill any chemicals!


Test tube rack

  • Test tube rack: holds many test tubes at once so you can do multiple tests without breaking them.


Spot plate

  • Used as a space to carry out many tiny reactions (a few drops of each chemical).


Let’s get acquainted!

Lab drawer checklist


Target 5

I can use proper techniques to light a Bunsen burner.


Bunsen burners vary


Other Items We Might Use

  • Ring stand(left)

  • Metal Ring(right)


What NOT to do!

  • Never light a Bunsen burner on the ring stand!

    • You never know how high the flame will be when it ignites and it could spread out when it hits the metal ring and come right at YOU!!

  • Never light a Bunsen burner with flammable materials nearby! (for obvious reasons)


Blue = Hotter!

  • We want a blue flame rather than an orange flame.

  • This is because blue flames are hotter than orange flames.

  • Blue flames are also more steady and not as “wavy”.


So what makes it blue?

  • More air getting into the tube means that it will be less orange and more blue.

  • If the air ports are closed, you get orange.

  • The more open the air ports are, the bluer it will be, but be careful…

    • You don’t want to make it come apart – the flame would be out of control!

    • If that were to happen (ACCIDENTALLY), what should you do?!?


Time for an activity!

Let’s light a Bunsen burner!


Target 6

I can explain the difference between a scientific theory and a scientific law.


Wording Matters!

  • Wording is very important in science.

  • For example: theory, law, and hypothesis don’t all mean the same thing.

  • Outside of science, you might say something is “just a theory”, meaning it’s an idea that may or may not be true.

  • In science, a theory is an explanation that generally is accepted to be true.

  • Here’s a closer look at these important, commonly misused terms.


Hypothesis

  • A hypothesis is an educated guess, based on observation.

  • Usually, a hypothesis can be supported or refuted through experimentation or more observation. A hypothesis can be disproved, but not proven to be true.


Example of Hypothesis

  • If you see no difference in the cleaning ability of various laundry detergents, you might hypothesize that cleaning effectiveness is not changed by which detergent you use.

  • You can see this hypothesis can be disproved if a stain is removed by one detergent and not another.

  • On the other hand, you cannot prove the hypothesis. Even if you never see a difference in cleanliness of your clothes after trying a thousand detergents, there might be one out there you haven’t tried that could make a difference.


Theory

  • A scientific theory summarizes a hypothesis or group of hypotheses that have been supported with repeated testing.

  • A theory is valid as long as there is no evidence against it. Therefore, theories can be disproved.

  • Basically, if evidence accumulates to support a hypothesis, then the hypothesis can become accepted as a good explanation of why something happens.


Example of Theory

  • The universe began as an infinitesimally small and dense item from which exploded space and time.

  • Scientists have accumulated evidence such as the red shift, background radiation, and the presence of lighter elements such as hydrogen and helium to help support this theory.

  • We could eventually find a piece of information that would disprove this theory, but we could never prove it completely…there could always be information out there we haven’t found yet that disproves it.


Law

  • A law generalizes a body of observations.

  • At the time it is made, no exceptions have been found to a law.

  • Scientific laws explain things, but they do not describe them.

  • One way to tell a law and a theory apart is to ask if the description gives you a means to explain ‘why’. If it does, it’s a theory. If it does not, it’s a law.


Example of Law

  • Consider Newton’s Law of Gravity. Newton could use the law to predict the behavior of a dropped object, but he couldn’t explain why it happened.


So in summary…

  • …there is no ‘proof’ or ‘absolute truth’ in science. The closest we get are facts, which are indisputable observations.

  • Still, wording and definitions matter. If you define proof as arriving at a logical conclusion, based on the evidence, then there is proof in science.

  • We work under the definition that to prove something implies it can never be wrong, which is different.

  • If you’re asked to define hypothesis, theory, or law, keep in mind the definitions of proof and these words can vary depending on the scientific discipline.

  • What is important is to realize they don’t all mean the same thing, and they cannot be used interchangeably.


Let’s Practice!

  • 1. Species change over time due to heavy competition among individuals so that those best suited for an environment survive and reproduce.

  • Theory

  • 2. The amount of force needed to move an object is proportional to its mass and acceleration.

  • Law

  • 3. An object in motion will remain in motion unless acted on by an unbalanced force.

  • Law


Time for a WS!

Theory or Law? WS


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