Functions and structure of bones
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Functions and Structure of Bones. Ch. 6. Functions of bone. Support Protection Movement Mineral homeostasis Blood cell production Energy storage. Support. Provide a framework for the body Muscles attach to skeletal system. Protection. Protects internal organs Surrounds:

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Functions and Structure of Bones

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Functions and structure of bones

Functions and Structure of Bones

Ch. 6


Functions of bone

Functions of bone

  • Support

  • Protection

  • Movement

  • Mineral homeostasis

  • Blood cell production

  • Energy storage


Support

Support

  • Provide a framework for the body

  • Muscles attach to skeletal system


Protection

Protection

  • Protects internal organs

  • Surrounds:

    • Ribs – heart, lungs, liver, spleen

    • Skull – brain

    • Vertebrae – spinal cord


Movement

Movement

  • Muscles pull on bones to produce motion

  • Muscles contract


Storage and production

Storage and Production

  • Produce red blood cells

    • Produced by red bone marrow

    • Process called: hemopoiesis

  • Stores minerals

    • Calcium, phosphorus

    • Releases minerals into blood stream as needed

  • Stores energy

    • Lipids stored in yellow bone marrow


Structure of bone

Structure of Bone

  • Best examined in long bones (femur, humerus, tibia, fibular, radius, ulna)


Structure of bone1

Structure of bone

  • Diaphysis

    • dī-AF-i-sis

    • dia= through

    • physis= growth

    • The shaft or long portion of the bone


Structure of bone2

Structure of bone

  • Epiphysis (e-PIF-i-sēz)

    • epi= above, physis = ?

    • The ends of the bone

    • Proximal and distal


Structure of bone3

Structure of bone

  • Metaphysis (me-TAF-i-sis)

    • Where the diaphysis meets the epiphysis

    • Includes epiphyseal plate


Structure of bone4

Structure of bone

  • Articular cartilage

    • Thin layer of hyaline cartilage

    • Covers epiphysis where a joint is formed

    • Reduces friction, absorbs shock


Structure of bone5

Structure of bone

  • Periosteum(per-ē-OS-tē-um)

    • (peri = around, osteo = bone)

    • Membrane surrounding a bone not yet covered by articular cartilage

    • Essential for growth, repair, nutrition

    • Point of attachment for ligaments and tendons

    • 2 layers

      • Outer – fibrous layer

        • Dense irregular connective tissue

        • Contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves

      • Inner – osteogenic layer

        • Contains elastic fibers, blood vessels, and bone cells


Structure of bone6

Structure of bone

  • Medullary (MED-yoo-lar-ē)

    • Also called marrow cavity

    • Space with in the diaphysis that contains yellow marrow

    • In adults only


Structure of bone7

Structure of bone

  • Endosteum (end-OS-tē-um)

    • Membrane lining the medullary

    • Contains osteoprogenitor cells


Structure of bone8

Structure of bone


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