functions and structure of bones
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Functions and Structure of Bones. Ch. 6. Functions of bone. Support Protection Movement Mineral homeostasis Blood cell production Energy storage. Support. Provide a framework for the body Muscles attach to skeletal system. Protection. Protects internal organs Surrounds:

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functions of bone
Functions of bone
  • Support
  • Protection
  • Movement
  • Mineral homeostasis
  • Blood cell production
  • Energy storage
support
Support
  • Provide a framework for the body
  • Muscles attach to skeletal system
protection
Protection
  • Protects internal organs
  • Surrounds:
    • Ribs – heart, lungs, liver, spleen
    • Skull – brain
    • Vertebrae – spinal cord
movement
Movement
  • Muscles pull on bones to produce motion
  • Muscles contract
storage and production
Storage and Production
  • Produce red blood cells
    • Produced by red bone marrow
    • Process called: hemopoiesis
  • Stores minerals
    • Calcium, phosphorus
    • Releases minerals into blood stream as needed
  • Stores energy
    • Lipids stored in yellow bone marrow
structure of bone
Structure of Bone
  • Best examined in long bones (femur, humerus, tibia, fibular, radius, ulna)
structure of bone1
Structure of bone
  • Diaphysis
    • dī-AF-i-sis
    • dia= through
    • physis= growth
    • The shaft or long portion of the bone
structure of bone2
Structure of bone
  • Epiphysis (e-PIF-i-sēz)
    • epi= above, physis = ?
    • The ends of the bone
    • Proximal and distal
structure of bone3
Structure of bone
  • Metaphysis (me-TAF-i-sis)
    • Where the diaphysis meets the epiphysis
    • Includes epiphyseal plate
structure of bone4
Structure of bone
  • Articular cartilage
    • Thin layer of hyaline cartilage
    • Covers epiphysis where a joint is formed
    • Reduces friction, absorbs shock
structure of bone5
Structure of bone
  • Periosteum(per-ē-OS-tē-um)
    • (peri = around, osteo = bone)
    • Membrane surrounding a bone not yet covered by articular cartilage
    • Essential for growth, repair, nutrition
    • Point of attachment for ligaments and tendons
    • 2 layers
      • Outer – fibrous layer
        • Dense irregular connective tissue
        • Contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves
      • Inner – osteogenic layer
        • Contains elastic fibers, blood vessels, and bone cells
structure of bone6
Structure of bone
  • Medullary (MED-yoo-lar-ē)
    • Also called marrow cavity
    • Space with in the diaphysis that contains yellow marrow
    • In adults only
structure of bone7
Structure of bone
  • Endosteum (end-OS-tē-um)
    • Membrane lining the medullary
    • Contains osteoprogenitor cells
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