Pregnancy development
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Pregnancy & Development. P & A. IX. Pregnancy. A. Def: condition resulting in union of sperm and egg and a fetus developing in the uterus B. How occur? 1. semen containing sperm is deposited in vagina 2. sperm travels up through uterus & uterine tubes

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Pregnancy & Development

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Pregnancy development

Pregnancy & Development

P & A


Ix pregnancy

IX. Pregnancy

  • A. Def: condition resulting in union of sperm and egg and a fetus developing in the uterus

  • B. How occur?

    • 1. semen containing sperm is deposited in vagina

    • 2. sperm travels up through uterus & uterine tubes

      • A. able to move b/c of tails and sugary energy

      • B. estrogen is high in first part of menstrual cycle

        • - causes uterus and cervix to create a watery secretion that aids in sperm transport

      • C. second part of cycle progesterone is high

        • - secretion prevents good sperm travel


Pregnancy development

  • 3. when sperm penetrates egg membrane, nuclei of the two combine = 46 chromosomes

    • A. first cell of life = ZYGOTE

    • B. after 32 hrs = zygote starts dividing = mitosis

    • C. zygote now called EMBRYO

    • D. after 3 days, embryo arrives to uterus

    • E. after 1 week – embryo attached in uterine wall

      • Endometrium

    • F. after 8 weeks – now called FETUS

      • Body is recognizable as human

    • G. outer embryo/fetus cells and endometrium form the placenta

      • Def: bloody sac that exchanges nutrients, gases, and wastes between mother and baby

      • Also acts as a barrier to some toxins


C hormonal changes in pregnancy

c. Hormonal changes in pregnancy

  • 1. human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

    • A. def: hormone that prevents normal decline in estrogen and progesterone that causes uterine lining to shed away (menstruation)

      • Hormone that a pregnancy test detects

    • B. if this hormone fails or there is not enough = miscarriage will result

  • 2. placental estrogen

    • A. def: hormone secreted by placenta that maintains thick uterine wall

      • 1. also causes relaxation of pelvic joints – helps in birthing process


Pregnancy development

  • 3. placental lactogen

    • A. hormone secreted by the placenta that allows for breast development and milk production


X embryonic dev 2 nd 8 th week

X. Embryonic dev (2nd-8th week)

  • A. germ layers

    • 1. def: layers of cells in an embryo that arise to form body structures

      • A. ectoderm: nervous system, hair, nails, skin, mouth, anal canal

      • B. mesoderm: muscle, bone, blood, lymph, reproductive organs

      • C. endoderm: digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts

  • B. pre-natal nourishment

    • 1. amnion

      • A. membrane around embryo

      • B. filled with fluid = amniotic fluid

        • Contains same cells as baby = samples used for genetic testing


Pregnancy development

  • C. umbilical cord forms

    • 1. provides a pathway for nutrients from placenta to embryo

  • C. By the end of the 8th week

    • Baby length = 30 mm

    • Baby weight = less than 5 g.

    • ** THESE FIRST FEW MONTHS ARE VERY CRITICAL IN BABIES’ DEVELOPMENT

      • - mother should immediately see Dr. when suspect pregnant

      • - nutrition is very important!


  • Xi fetal development 9 th week birth

    xi. Fetal development – 9th week - birth

    • ** Lunar month = 28 days

    • A. 3rd lunar month

      • 1. body length grows greatly

      • 2. head growth slows

      • 3. ossification centers develop

      • 4. by end of 12th week, reproductive organs visible

    • B. 4th lunar month

      • 1. body grows to 13-17 cm

      • 2. skeleton ossifies


    Pregnancy development

    • C. 5th lunar month

      • 1. growth supresses

      • 2. skeletal muscles active = mother feels movement

      • 3. hair develops

    • D. 6th lunar month

      • 1. large weight gain

      • 2. eyebrows and eyelashes appear

    • E. 7th lunar month

      • 1. fat deposited = smooths out skin

      • 2. eyelids open

      • 3. approx 37 cm in length


    Pregnancy development

    • F. 8th lunar month

      • 1. testes of male descend

        • * sometimes this doesn’t happen and surgery is needed

    • G. 9th lunar month

      • 1. body chubby b/c of fat deposits

      • 2. skin pink

    • H. 10th lunar month

      • 1. full term

      • 2. skin sebum coated

      • 3. scalp has hair

      • 4. skull bones ossified

      • 5. nails developed

      • 6. head positioned to cervix


    Xii fetal circulation

    XII. Fetal circulation

    • A. blood in the pulmonary artery bypasses the lungs by entering DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS

      • - which brings blood back to aorta


    Xiii labor

    xiii. labor

    • A. uterine & vaginal stretching in late pregnancy

      • 1. initiates hypothalamus to signal posterior pituitary gland

      • 2. PPG releases oxytocin

        • - stimulates uterine contractions

      • 3. rhythmic contractions send uterine contents to cervix

        • - signals stronger contractions = POSITIVE FEEDBACK

      • 4. fetus forced outside

      • 5. 10-15 minutes after birth, placenta separates from uterine wall & is delivered


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