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Petrology. The study of the properties of rocks and the processes behind their formation Recognition and description of rocks Interpretation of their origin and history. Instructor. Michael F. Sheridan email: [email protected] Homepage: http://www.eng.buffalo.edu/~mfs

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Petrology
Petrology

  • The study of the properties of rocks and the processes behind their formation

  • Recognition and description of rocks

  • Interpretation of their origin and history


Instructor
Instructor

  • Michael F. Sheridan

  • email:

  • Homepage:

    • http://www.eng.buffalo.edu/~mfs

  • Office hours:

    • We & Th 1:00-2:00 PM


Fundamentals
Fundamentals

  • Classification

  • Changing States (Equilibrium)

  • Plate Tectonics & Petrology

  • Thermodynamics

  • Kinetics


Magmatic rock bodies
Magmatic Rock Bodies

  • Study of rocks in hand sample

  • Descriptive Petrochemistry

  • Origin and evolution of magmas

  • Interpretative Petrochemistry


Study of rocks in hand sample
Study of rocks in hand sample

  • Fabric

  • Rock forming minerals

  • Classification


Fabric
Fabric

  • Phaneritic

  • Aphanitic

  • Glassy

  • Clastic


Sequence of mineral formation
Sequence of mineral formation

  • Degree of perfection of form

  • Inclusion within other minerals

  • Chemical zonation

  • Signs of deformation

  • Secondary growth

  • Alteration to secondary minerals


Rock forming minerals
Rock forming minerals

  • Feldspars

  • Quartz

  • Pyroxenes

  • Olivines

  • Amphiboles

  • Micas

  • Feldspathoids


Classification
Classification

  • Leucocratic

  • Felsic

  • Silicic

  • Mafic

  • Ultramafic


Rock suites
Rock Suites

  • Mafic and ultramafic

  • Calc-alkaline

  • Highly alkaline


Descriptive petrochemistry
Descriptive Petrochemistry

  • Chemical analyses

    • Major elements

    • Trace elements

  • Relation of chemistry to mineralogy


Chemical classification
Chemical classification

  • Silica concentration

    • Acid >66%

    • Intermediate 52-66%

    • Basic 45-52%

    • Ultrabasic <45%


Silica saturation
Silica saturation

  • Oversaturated

    • compatible with quartz

  • Saturated

    • Neither undersaturated minerals nor quartz

  • Undersaturated

    • undersaturated minerals


Alkali aluminum saturation
Alkali/Aluminum saturation

  • Relative to feldspar composition

    • NaAlSi3O8

  • Peralkaline

  • Peraluminous

  • Calc-alkaline


Cipw norm
CIPW norm

  • Definition

  • How calculated

  • Use in classification


Chemistry of rocks
Chemistry of rocks

  • Major elements

  • Trace elements

  • CIPW norm


From mineral composition to rock composition
From Mineral Composition to Rock Composition

  • Determine the minerals present

  • estimate their abundance

  • Calculate the rock composition using proper weightings


Interpretative petrochemistry
Interpretative Petrochemistry

  • Models of crystallization

  • Concepts of magma movement

  • Secondary alteration


Ultramafic rock bodies
Ultramafic rock bodies

  • Petrography of gabbroic and ultramafic rocks

  • Nature of Plutons

  • Oceanic subalkaline basaltic to ultramafic associations

  • Ophiolites


Petrography of gabbroic and ultramafic rocks
Petrography of gabbroic and ultramafic rocks

  • General

    • phaneritic grain size

    • may be nearly monomineralic

      • Pyroxene

      • Olivine

      • Plagioclase

  • Fabric

    • Slow sequential growth

    • Hypidiomorphic granular


Petrography of gabbroic and ultramafic rocks1
Petrography of gabbroic and ultramafic rocks

  • Classification

  • Alteration

    • deuteric and hydrothermal alteration

    • Serpentine

    • Secondary iron oxide

    • brucite & talc


Nature of gabbroic plutons
Nature of Gabbroic Plutons

  • Dikes, sills, and plugs

  • Layered intrusions

  • Slow shallow cooling of basaltic magma


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