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Operating System Design Options. Hierarchical Structure. Many OS are designed and implemented using a hierarchical structure. Functions at one level are allowed to refer only to functions provided by the same or lower levels; i.e., there should be no outward calls.

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Operating System Design Options

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Operating SystemDesign Options


Hierarchical Structure

  • Many OS are designed and implemented using a hierarchical structure.

  • Functions at one level are allowed to refer only to functions provided by the same or lower levels; i.e., there should be no outward calls.

  • Strict hierarchy vs. transparent hierarchy


Virtual Machines

  • Hierarchical structure concepts can be extended to provide users, including OSs, the illusion of running on separate virtual machines.

  • OS1, OS2, OS3, and User5 deal with the VMM, instead of the real machine.


Virtual Machines

  • VMM provides resources, services, and functions that are the same as those available on the underlying real machine.

  • VMM is actually a complete, but simple, OS for the real machine.

  • Pros: flexibility and convenience

  • Cons: simulation overhead


Multiprocessor OSs

  • Types of multiprocessor architecture


Multiprocessor OSs

  • Types of multiprocessor OSs:


Network Operating Systems


Distributed Operating Systems


Object-Oriented Operating Systems

  • Most of the system is implemented as a collection of objects.

  • Each object encapsulates a data structure and defines a set of operations, called methods, on that data structure.


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