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INCONTRI DI FISICA, LNF, 9 OTT. 2009. L’ UNIVERSO INVISIBILE: IL PROBLEMA DELLA MATERIA ED ENERGIA OSCURE. Antonio Masiero Univ. di Padova e INFN, Padova. UNIFICAZIONE delle INTERAZIONI FONDAMENTALI. IL MODELLO STANDARD PARTICELLARE. WHY TO GO BEYOND THE SM. “OBSERVATIONAL” REASONS.

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why to go beyond the sm
WHY TO GO BEYOND THE SM

“OBSERVATIONAL” REASONS

THEORETICAL REASONS

  • INTRINSIC INCONSISTENCY OF SM AS QFT
  • (spont. broken gauge theory
  • without anomalies)
  • NO ANSWER TO QUESTIONS THAT “WE” CONSIDER “FUNDAMENTAL” QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED BY “FUNDAMENTAL” THEORY
    • (hierarchy, unification, flavor)
  • HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS
  • (but AFB……)
  • FCNC, CP
  • NO (but b sqq penguin …)
  • HIGH PRECISION LOW-EN.
  • NO (but (g-2) …)
  • NEUTRINO PHYSICS
  • YE m0, 0
  • COSMO - PARTICLE PHYSICS
  • YE (DM, ∆B cosm, INFLAT., DE)

Z bb

NO

NO

NO

NO

YES

YES

YES

indicazioni di nuova fisica al di la del modello standard particellare
INDICAZIONI DI NUOVA FISICA AL DI LA’ DEL MODELLO STANDARD PARTICELLARE
  • MASSA DEI NEUTRINI
  • ESISTENZA DI MATERIA OSCURA NON COSTITUITA DALLA “SOLITA” MATERIA (protoni, neutroni)
  • ASIMMETRIA COSMICA TRA MATERIA E ANTIMATERIA: ESISTENZA DI UNA NUOVA SORGENTE DI VIOLAZIONE DI CP OLTRE A QUELLA PREVISTA DAL MODELLO STANDARD
  • IMPOSSIBILITA’ NEL MS DI OTTENERE UNA FASE INFLAZIONARIA ( ESPANSIONE ACCELERATA ESPONENZIALMENTE ) NELL’UNIVERSO PRIMORDIALE
  • DOMANDE “FONDAMENTALI” A CUI IL MODELLO STANDARD NON RISPONDE:

- UNIFICAZIONE DELLE FORZE FONDAMENTALI

- MASSE E MESCOLAMENTI DEI FERMIONI

- “STABILITA’” DELLA SCALA DI ENERGIA A CUI I BOSONI W e Z PRENDONO MASSA ( circa 100 GeV)

theoretical reasons to go beyond the sm
THEORETICAL REASONS TO GO BEYOND THE SM
  • FLAVOR PUZZLE RATIONALE FOR FERMION MASSES AND MIXINGS
  • UNIFICATION PROBLEM  NO REAL UNIF. OF ELW.+STRONG INTERACTIONS +GRAVITY LEFT OUT OF THE GAME
  • HIERARCHY PROBLEM(S)  ULTRAVIOLET COMPLETION OF THE SM TO (NATURALLY) STABILIZE THE ELW. BREAKING SCALE + TUNING OF THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT
present observational evidence for new physics
Present “Observational” Evidence for New Physics
  • NEUTRINO MASSES
  • DARK MATTER
  • MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY
  • INFLATION
slide11

MICRO

MACRO

PARTICLE PHYSICS

COSMOLOGY

HOT BIG BANG STANDARD MODEL

GWS STANDARD MODEL

HAPPY MARRIAGE

Ex: NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

POINTS OF

FRICTION

BUT ALSO

  • COSMIC MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY
  • INFLATION
  • - DARK MATTER + DARK ENERGY

“OBSERVATIONAL” EVIDENCE FOR NEW PHYSICS BEYOND THE (PARTICLE PHYSICS) STANDARD MODEL

the energy scale from the observational new physics
The Energy Scale from the“Observational” New Physics

neutrino masses

dark matter

baryogenesis

inflation

NO NEED FOR THE NP SCALE TO BE CLOSE TO THE ELW. SCALE

The Energy Scale from the “Theoretical” New Physics

Stabilization of the electroweak symmetry breaking at MW calls for an ULTRAVIOLET COMPLETION of the SM already at the TeV scale+

CORRECT GRAND UNIFICATION “CALLS” FOR NEW PARTICLES AT THE ELW. SCALE

da g u t a susy g u t
DA G.U.T. A SUSY G.U.T.

Aggiunta di nuove particelle SUSY partner di quelle ordinarie del Modello Standard ad una scala di massa tra 100 e 1000 GeV

modificare la gravita mond
MODIFICARE LA GRAVITA’ (MOND)
  • DM e’ sempre derivata dalle osservazioni assumendo lavalidita’ della legge standard della gravita’  possibile evitare l’introduzione di DM se modifico la legge di gravita’ su varie scale astronomiche
  • Possibili problemi per CDM
  • Fit di MOND a >100 curve di rotazione galattiche con successo
  • Problemi a riprodurre i dati relativi alla dinamica di clusters: necessita’ di introdurre materia invisibile (neutrini, barioni oscuri)
  • Versione relativistica di MOND ( Tensor-Vector Scalar Th. - TeVeS) + covarianza ( Bekenstein ’04, Sanders ’05)
  • TeVeS : OK per strong lensing, invece necessita di materia invisibile per riprodurre il weak lensing. Barioni oscuri necessari anche per fenomeni quali il Bullet Cluster ( Milgrom ’08)
slide19

The BULLET CLUSTER: two colliding clusters of galaxies

Stars, galaxies and putative DM behave differently during collision, allowing for them to be studied separately. In MOND the lensing is expected to follow the baryonic matter, i.e. the X-ray gas. However the lensing is strongest in two separated regions near the visible galaxies most of the mass in the cluster pair is in the form of collisionless DM

slide20

La conoscenza che abbiamo riguarda solo il 4%

dell’Universo il resto è ancora ignoto !!

slide21

Inventario della materia nell’ Universo

1% Stelle

7% Gas nelle galassie

materia barionica

7% Gas

materia non barionica

85% Materia Oscura

slide23

Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

Equazione del Campo di Gravitazione

Costante Cosmologica

LA COSTANTE COSMOLOGICA SORGENTE DELL’ENERGIA OSCURA DELL’UNIVERSO E CAUSA DELLA SUA ESPANSIONE ACCELERATA?

bilancio energetico dell universo
Bilancio energetico dell’Universo

?

PROBLEMA DELL’ENERGIA DEL VUOTO O DELLA COSTANTE COSMOLOGICA

is the fine tuning a real problem
IS THE FINE-TUNING A REAL PROBLEM?
  • WARNING: THERE EXISTS AN EVEN “LARGER” HIERARCHY OR FINE -TUNING OR NATURALNESS PROBLEM: THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT PROBLEM (“ THE MOTHER” OF ALL NATURALNESS PROBLEMS); SO FAR, WE SIMPLY “ACCEPT” SUCH FINE-TUNING!
  • (OUTRAGEOUS) POSSIBILITY: THE “THEORY OF EVERYTHING” COULD BE UNIQUE, BUT WITH MANY (INFINITE?) VACUA EACH GIVING RISE TO A DIFFERENT UNI-VERSE ( MULTI-VERSE POSSIBILITY).WE CAN LIVE ONLY IN THE VERY RESTRICTED CLASS OF THE “MULTI-VERSE SPACE” WHERE THE “BOUDARY CONDITIONS” ( FOR INSTANCE, THE VALUE OF THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT OR THE SCALE OF THE ELW.SYMMETRY BREAKING AND, HENCE, THE HIGGS MASS) EXHIBIT VALUES ALLOWING FOR THE CORRECT BBN, LSS,… OUR LIFE!

ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE

uni verso o multi verso
UNI -- VERSOOMULTI -- VERSO
  • Tutta l’evoluzione dell’Universo (asimmetria tra materia ed antimateria, nucleosintesi, formazione delle galassie, ammassi, etc., sistema solare, vita sulla Terra etc.) dipende in maniera molto stretta dal preciso valore assunto da alcuni parametri fondamentali ( tra questi quello della costante cosmologica): e’ possibile che quello in cui noi siamo sia solo uno dei moltissimi –versi ( MULTI – VERSO) ?
dm new physics beyond the particle physics sm if newton is right at scales size of the solar system
DM  NEW PHYSICS BEYOND THE ( PARTICLE PHYSICS ) SM - if Newton is right at scales>size of the Solar System
  • ΩDM= 0.233 ± 0.013 *
  • Ωbaryons = 0.0462 ± 0.0015 **

*from CMB ( 5 yrs. of WMAP) + Type I Supernovae + Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO)

**CMB + TypeI SN + BAO in agreement with Nucleosynthesis (BBN)

slide28
LA MATERIA OSCURA E’ QUANTITATIVAMENTE E QUALITATIVAMENTE LA PIU’ IMPRESSIONANTE EVIDENZA DI NUOVA FISICA OLTRE IL MS PARTICELLARE
  • QUANTITATIVE: Taking into account the latest WMAP data which in combination with LSS data provide stringent bounds on DM and BEVIDENCE FOR NON-BARYONIC DM AT MORE THAN 10 STANDARD DEVIATIONS!!THE SM DOES NOT PROVIDE ANY CANDIDATE FOR SUCH NON-BARYONIC DM
  • QUALITATIVE: it is NOT enough to provide a mass to neutrinos to obtain a valid DM candidate; LSS formation requires DM to be COLD NEW PARTICLES NOT INCLUDED IN THE SPECTRUM OF THE FUNDAMENTAL BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE SM !
sono i neutrini la materia oscura sic transit gloria mundi
SONO I NEUTRINI LA MATERIA OSCURA?SIC TRANSIT GLORIA MUNDI
  • Massive neutrinos: only candidates in the SM to account for DM. From here the “prejudice” of neutrinos of a few eV to correctly account for DM
  • Neutrinos decouple at ~1 MeV ; being their mass<<decoupling temperature, neutrinos remain relativistic for a long time. Being very fast, they smooth out any possible growth of density fluctuation forbidding the formation of proto-structures.
  • The “weight” of neutrinos in the DM budget is severely limited by the observations disfavoring scenarios where first superlarge structures arise and then galaxies originate from their fragmentation
lss pattern and neutrino masses

m = 0 eV

m = 1 eV

(E..g., Ma 1996)

m = 7 eV

m = 4 eV

LSS PATTERN AND NEUTRINO MASSES
slide31

Cosmological Bounds on the sum of the masses of the 3 neutrinos from increasingly rich samples of data sets

slide32

LA MATERIA OSCURA QUALE CHIAVE DI ACCESSO ALLA NUOVA FISICA OLTRE IL MS: PUO’ LA PARTICELLA DI MATERIA OSCURA ESSERE IL PRIMO SEGNALE DELLA NUOVA FISICA ALLASCALA ELETTRODEBOLE?

the wimp miracle
THE “WIMP MIRACLE”

Bergstrom

Tante le possibilita’, ma gli WIMP sono speciali : singolare coincidenza tra param. dei MODELLI STANDARD PART. e COSM. per dare validi candidati di DM proprio alla scala eletttrodebole (TeV)

wimps weakly interacting massive particles
WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)

# exp(-m/T)

# does not change any more

#~#

m

Tdecoupl. typically ~ m /20

  depends on particle physics (annih.) and “cosmological” quantities (H, T0, …

10-3

 h2_

COSMO – PARTICLE

CONSPIRACY

~

<(annih.) V  > TeV2

From T0 MPlanck

~ 2 / M2

h2 in the range 10-2 -10-1 to be cosmologically interesting (for DM)

m ~ 102 -103 GeV (weak interaction) h2 ~ 10-2 -10-1 !!!

THERMAL RELICS (WIMP in thermodyn.equilibrium with the plasma until Tdecoupl)

how to cope with the hierarchy problem
HOW TO COPE WITH THE HIERARCHY PROBLEM
  • LOW-ENERGY SUSY
  • LARGE EXTRA DIMENSIONS
  • DYNAMICAL SYMMETRY BREAKING OF THE ELW. SYMMETRY
  • LANDSCAPE APPROACH (ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE)
stable elw scale wimps from particle physics
STABLE ELW. SCALE WIMPs from PARTICLE PHYSICS

SUSYEXTRA DIM. LITTLE HIGGS.

1) ENLARGEMENT OF THE SM

(x, ) (x, ji) SM part + new part

Anticomm. New bosonic to cancel 2

Coord. Coord. at 1-Loop

2) SELECTION RULE

DISCRETE SYMM.

STABLE NEW PART.

R-PARITY LSP KK-PARITY LKP T-PARITY LTP

Neutralino spin 1/2 spin1 spin0

mLSP

~100 - 200 GeV *

mLKP

~600 - 800

GeV

3) FIND REGION (S) PARAM. SPACE WHERE THE “L” NEW PART. IS NEUTRAL + ΩL h2 OK

mLTP

~400 - 800

GeV

* But abandoning gaugino-masss unif. Possible to have mLSP down to 7 GeV

Bottino, Donato, Fornengo, Scopel

susy dm a successful marriage
SUSY & DM : a successful marriage
  • Supersymmetrizing the SM does not lead necessarily to a stable SUSY particle to be a DM candidate.
  • However, the mere SUSY version of the SM is known to lead to a too fast p-decay. Hence, necessarily, the SUSY version of the SM has to be supplemented with some additional ( ad hoc?) symmetry to prevent the p-decay catastrophe.
  • Certainly the simplest and maybe also the most attractive solution is to impose the discrete R-parity symmetry
  • MSSM + R PARITYLIGHTEST SUSY PARTICLE (LSP) IS STABLE .
  • The LSP can constitute an interesting DM candidate in several interesting realizations of the MSSM ( i.e., with different SUSY breaking mechanisms including gravity, gaugino, gauge, anomaly mediations, and in various regions of the parameter space).
who is the lsp
WHO IS THE LSP?
  • SUPERGRAVITY ( transmission of the SUSY breaking from the hidden to the obsevable sector occurring via gravitational interactions): best candidate to play the role of LSP:

NEUTRALINO ( i.e., the lightest of the four eigenstates of the 4x4 neutralino mass matrix)

In CMSSM: the LSP neutralino is almost entirely a BINO

which susy
WHICH SUSY

HIDDEN

SECTOR SUSY

BREAKING AT

SCALE F

F = (105 - 106) GeV

F = MW MPl

GRAVITY

GAUGE INTERACTIONS

MESSENGERS

Mgravitino~ F/MPl ~

(102 -103) eV

Mgravitino ~ F/MPl ~

(102 -103) GeV

OBSERVABLE

SECTOR

SM + superpartners

MSSM : minimal content

of superfields

neutralino lsp in the constrained msssm a very special selection in the parameter space
NEUTRALINO LSP IN THE CONSTRAINED MSSSM: A VERY SPECIAL SELECTION IN THE PARAMETER SPACE?

Favored by gµ -2

Favored by DM

Excluded: stau LSP

Excluded by bsγ

Ellis, Olive, Santoso, Spanos

slide41
After LEP: tuning of the SUSY param. at the % level to correctly reproduce the DM abundance: NEED FOR A “WELL-TEMPERED” NEUTRALINO
slide42
MA SIAMO SICURI CHE LA MATERIA OSCURA SIA LEGATA SOLAMENTE A NUOVA FISICA OLTRE IL MODELLO STANDARD PARTICELLARE?
  • LA PIU’ LONTANA INFORMAZIONE ( AFFIDABILE) CHE ABBIAMO SULLE PRIME FASI DELL’UNIVERSO E’ LA NUCLEOSINTESI ( t > 1 sec. dopo il Big Bang)
  • PRIMA DELLA NUCLEOSINTESI L’EVOLUZIONE ( ad es. la velocita’ di espansione) DELL’UNIVERSO POTEVA DIFFERIRE SIGNIFICATIVAMENTE DAL QUADRO DELLA COSMOLOGIA STANDARD DEL BIG BANG CALDO CON PROFONDE IMPLICAZIONI SULL’ABBONDANZA E NATURA DELLA MATERIA OSCURA
dm and non standard cosmologies before nucleosynthesis
DM and NON-STANDARD COSMOLOGIES BEFORE NUCLEOSYNTHESIS
  • NEUTRALINO RELIC DENSITY MAY DIFFER FROM ITS STANDARD VALUE, i.e. the value it gets when the expansion rate of the Universe is what is expected in Standard Cosmology (EX.: SCALAR-TENSOR THEORIES OF GRAVITY, KINATION, EXTRA-DIM. RANDALL-SUNDRUM TYPE II MODEL, ETC.)
  • WIMPS MAY BE “COLDER”, i.e. they may have smaller typical velocities and, hence, they may lead to smaller masses for the first structures which form

GELMINI, GONDOLO

larger wimp annihilation cross section in non standard cosmologies
LARGER WIMP ANNIHILATION CROSS-SECTION IN NON-STANDARD COSMOLOGIES
  • Having a Universe expansion rate at the WIMP freeze-out larger than in Standard Cosmology possible to provide a DM adequate WIMP population even in the presence of a larger annihilation cross-section ( Catena, Fornengo, A.M., Pietroni)
  • Possible application to increase the present DM annihilation rate to account for the PAMELA results in the DM interpretation (instead of other mechanisms like the Sommerfeld effect or a nearby resonance)

El Zant, Khalil, Okada

wimps proviamo a fabbricarli anche noi
WIMPs: proviamo a “fabbricarli” anche noi !

L’IPOTESI “WIMPS”

MATERIA OSCURA COSTITUITA DA PARTICELLE “NUOVE” CON MASSA TRA 100 E 1000 GEV CHE INTERAGISCONO SOLO DEBOLMENTE

LHC, ILC (LINEAR COLLIDER )

POSSONO PRODURRE WIMPS

WIMPS scappano dal rivelatore

“FIRMA” DELL’HIGGS:

ENERGIA MANCANTE

DALLA MISURA DI MATERIA OSCURA POSSO RISALIRE A QUANTO GLI WIMPS INTERAGISCANO CON LA MATERIA ORDINARIA E QUINDI PREDIRE LA QUANTITA’ DI WIMPS CHE PRODURRO’ A LHC O A ILC

slide46

PREDICTION OF Ω DM FROM LHC AND ILC FOR TWO DIFFERENT SUSY PARAMETER SETS

BALTZ, BATTAGLIA, PESKIN, WIZANSKY

hunting for dark matter
HUNTING FOR DARK MATTER

INDIRECT DM SEARCHES

DIRECT DM SEARCHES

slide50

Neutralino-nucleon scattering cross sections along the WMAP-allowed coannihilation strip for tanbeta=10 and coannihilation/funnel strip for tanbeta=50 using the hadronic parameters

ELLIS, OLIVE, SAVAGE

Ellis, Olive, Sandick

LHC Sensitivity

prospects for discovering the cmssm at the lhc in light of wmap
PROSPECTS FOR DISCOVERING THE CMSSM AT THE LHC IN LIGHT OF WMAP

RED: FULL SAMPLE OF CMMS MODELS

BLUE: POINTS COMPATIBLE WITH WMAP

GREEN: POINTS ACCESSIBLE TO LHC

YELLOW: POINTS ACCESSIBLE TO PRESENT DIRECT DM SEARCHES

Ellis et al.

modulazione del segnale di interazione tra materia oscura e nuclei bersaglio
MODULAZIONE DEL SEGNALE DI INTERAZIONE TRA MATERIA OSCURA E NUCLEI-BERSAGLIO

“VENTO DI MATERIA OSCURA “ VARIA A SECONDA DELLA VELOCITA’ DELLA TERRA

ricerca indiretta di materia oscura
RICERCA INDIRETTA DI MATERIA OSCURA
  • ANNICHILAZIONE WIMP-ANTIWIMP
  • RILEVANTI PRODOTTI DELL’ANNICHILAZIONE :

I) FOTONI AD ALTA ENERGIA

II) NEUTRINI AD ALTA ENERGIA

III) ANTIMATERIA

I) ASTRONOMIA GAMMA: telescopi a terra ( es. MAGIC alle Canarie o ARGO in Tibet ) o nello spazio ( es. AGILE e FERMI)

II) TELESCOPI DI NEUTRINI: sotto il ghiaccio del polo (AMANDA), o sotto il mare ( ANTARES, Marsiglia, in futuro NEMO, Capo Passero, Sicilia)

III) ANTIMATERIA: ricerche di eccessi di antiprotoni o positroni in esperimenti spaziali (PAMELA su razzo russo, AMS sulla ISS)

indirect searches of dm
INDIRECT SEARCHES OF DM
  • WIMPs collected inside celestial bodies ( Earth, Sun): their annihilations produce energetic neutrinos
  • WIMPs in the DM halo: WIMP annihilations can take place ( in particular, their rate can be enhanced with there exists a CLUMPY distribution of DM as computer simulations of the DM distribution in the galaxies seem to suggest. From the WIMP annihilation:

-- energetic neutrinos ( under-ice, under-water exps Amanda, Antares, Nemo, Nestor, …)

--photons in tens of GeV range ( gamma astronomy on ground Magic, Hess, … or in space Agile, Glast…)

--antimatter: look for an excess of antimatter w.r.t. what is expected in cosmic rays ( space exps. Pamela, AMS, …)

slide59

PAMELA excess: October 2008, stimulated enormous

theoretical activity; note: statistical errors only! Fermi:

feature observed by ATIC not confirmed

Strumia

EPS09

slide60

Pulsars: Fermi & PAMELA

pulsar parameters “randomly” varied!

Grasso et al

slide61

Strumia

EPS09

  • Necessario innalzare la sezione d’uro di annichilazione OGGI rispetto a quella presente quando gli WIMP si sono disaccoppiati nel primo Universo
  • SUSY WIMP piuttosto pesanti m> 1 TeV
dm de
DM DE

DO THEY “KNOW” EACH OTHER?

DIRECT INTERACTION  (quintessence) WITH DARK MATTER

  • DANGER:
  • Very LIGHT

m ~ H0-1 ~ 10-33 eV

Threat of violation of the equivalence principle constancy of the fundamental “constants”,…

INFLUENCE OF  ON THE NATURE AND THE ABUNDANCE OF CDM

 COMPONENTE SCALARE DELLA GRAVITA’ IN AGGIUNTA ALLA SOLITA COMPONENTE TENSORIALE?

Modifications of the standard picture of

WIMPs FREEZE - OUT

CATENA, FORNENGO, A.M., PIETRONI, SCHELKE

CDM CANDIDATES

i l c

TEVATRON

LHC

I L C

DM - FLAVOR

for DISCOVERY

and/or FUND. TH.

RECONSTRUCTION

A MAJOR LEAP AHEAD IS NEEDED

NEW

PHYSICS AT

THE ELW

SCALE

DARK MATTER

"LOW ENERGY"

PRECISION PHYSICS

mn…

LINKED TO COSMOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

FCNC, CP ≠, (g-2), ()0

LFV

Possible interplay with dynamical DE

LEPTOGENESIS

NEUTRINO PHYSICS

slide66

MICRO

MACRO

MODELLO STANDARD

COSMOLOGICO:

MODELLO STANDARDPARTICELLARE: COSTITUENTI E INTERAZIONI FONDAMENTALI

HOT BIG BANG

MATRIMONIO FELICE

ES: NUCLEOSINTESI

PUNTI DI

ATTRITO

MA ANCHE

MATERIA ED ENERGIA OSCURA

LHC  UNA ECCEZIONALE FINESTRA PER ESPLORARE L’UNIVERSO E LA SUA ORIGINE

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