Eye examination in infants, children and young adults by pediatricians. Ronit Friling Pediatric Ophthalmology Unit, Schneiders Childrens Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Eye evaluation in the physician’s office.
Pediatric Ophthalmology Unit,
Schneiders Childrens Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Birth to three years
Age 0-3 years
To determine whether each eye can fixate on an object, maintain fixation and follow the object into various gaze positions.
The assessment should be performed binocularly and then monocularly.
Older than 3 years
Picture tests such as (LEA symbols) and Allen cards can be used for children 2-4 years of age
Consists of penlight evaluation of the lids, conjunctiva, sclera, cornea and iris.
Persistent discharge or tearing may be attributed to ocular infection, allergy or glaucoma but the most common cause is lacrimal duct obstruction.
The most common cause of pseudostrabismus is prominent epicentral lid folds that cover the medial portion of the sclera on both eyes
The pupils should be equal, round, and reactive to light in both eyes
The red reflex can be used to detect opacities in the visual axis such as cataract or corneal abnormality and abnormalities of the back of the eye such as retinoblastoma or retinal detachment
Snellen Acuity Cards
The test consists of a wall chart composed of H,O,T,V
The child is provided a board containing a large H,O,T,V
Consists of 4 cards containing 7 schematic figures
The LH Symbol test is made of
house, apple, circle, square
The most common cause of monocular visual impairment in children
A substandard correct visual acuity without evidence of organic eye disease Prevalence 2-2.5% in general population
6 hours 43% of patients 8 hours 30% of patients amblyopia 6/18 or better
10 hours 7% of patients
12 hours 20% of patients
A drop of atropine per dayPatching GroupAtropine Group
eye was either equal to that of the fellow eye or had not improved