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Modeling & Simulation of a Spring-Assisted Robot Arm. ME 6105 Fall 2012 – 12/06/2012 Lewis Lo, Benjamin Daniels, Matthew Rosen, Merlin Morlock. abb.com. Introduction & Domain. 4 axis robot based on the ABB IRB660 palletizing & materials handling  up to 250 kg load

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slide1

Modeling & Simulation of a Spring-Assisted Robot Arm

ME 6105 Fall 2012 – 12/06/2012

Lewis Lo, Benjamin Daniels, Matthew Rosen, Merlin Morlock

abb.com

slide2

Introduction & Domain

  • 4 axis robot based on the ABB IRB660
  • palletizing & materials handling  up to 250 kg load
  • Torsional spring at lower arm
  •  Goal: design a motor with spring at lower arm joint to maximize utility
  • performance attributes: 1. Energy consumption
  • 2. End-effector position error

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide3

Motor Parameters Design

  • Back calculating Torque (~20kN) to find k and R, motor paramters
  • Use of gear box (~182/1)to increase Torque
  • Thanks for help from Prof. Paredis in Motor Cost estimation

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide4

SwitchingMass

  • Halfwaythroughtrajectorythepayloadmassisdecreased
  • from 60 kg to 1kg  simulates picking & placing

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide5

Controller Design 1/2 - Inverse Dynamics

  • Advantage
    • inverse dynamicsautomaticallycalculatesneededvoltageforgiven angle
    •  PID controllershaveminorworkto do tocompensateuncertaintiesanddisturbances

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide6

Controller Design 1/2 - Inverse Dynamics

  • But howtorealize Inverse Dynamics?
    • change all inputstooutputs

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide7

Controller Design 1/2 - Inverse Dynamics

  • But howtorealize Inverse Dynamics?
    • change all inputstooutputs

comicforum.de

slide8

Controller Design 1/2 - Inverse Dynamics

  • But howtorealize Inverse Dynamics? Let Dymola do thework!
    • copy model
    • change all inputstooutputsandviceversa
    • e.gsensorstoactuatorsandviceversa
    • makeresistance negative
    • makedamping negative
  • Disadvantageof Dymola Trick
    • problemsoccuredwith multiple inputsandoutputswhenthereisdamping & resistance

Physically

Not meaningful

But doesthejob

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide9

Example

INVERSION ofmotor & mechanics

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide10

Controller Design 2/2 – PID controllerused in project

  • Advantage
    • SISO control design  easy
  • Disadvantages
    • PID controllers pull all theweight
    •  Trick: make controller extremely stiff: P=40 000 !!

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide11

Overall Model Structure

  • Trajectories, PID Controllers, DC Motors & Mechanics
  • Error & Energy measurement performance attributes
slide12

Animation for Fixed Path

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide13

Whatisthe Spring goodfor?

  • parabolicfunctionforenergyconsumption morethan 50% energysavingspossible

Energyconsumption

Spring stiffness

Max Motor speed

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide14

Detailed Demand Spreadsheet

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide15

Detailed Demand Spreadsheet

  • Modify Profit in `ProfitUtility´ spreadsheet
    • Fordiscountfactors
    • Discount Limits

Realizewithifstatement

  • Modify thisanddragtorightand down

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide16

Detailed Demand Spreadsheet

  • Modify Utility in `ProfitUtility´ spreadsheet
    • introduce time preference discountprofitandplug in intoutilityfunction
  • But don‘tforgettochangethecalculationofexpecteddemandsincecostdepends on demandnow = `loop´
  • Modify thisanddragtorightand down

change

In ProfitUtility usingPre-predictor

In TEAM_USE

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide17

Motor Cost & Loop

  • Motor Costas design variable
  • ´Loop´ in spreadsheetcanbeseen ininfluencediagram

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide18

Design Space Exploration & Optimization

  • Changed of modification cost at zero spring size to exponential function to ensure smooth design surface
  • Optimization results not too close to design space bounds.

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide19

Design Problem Results

Profit

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

slide21

THANK YOU VERY MUCH

  • FOR YOUR ATTENTION!
  • QUESTIONS?

ME6105 - Spring Assisted Robot Arm

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