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A New Kind of Revolution. Chapter 12, Lesson 2 4-5.2, 4-5.5. The Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution was a change in the way goods were produced, from handmade goods to goods made by machines.

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A new kind of revolution

A New Kind of Revolution

Chapter 12, Lesson 2

4-5.2, 4-5.5

The industrial revolution
The Industrial Revolution

  • The Industrial Revolution was a change in the way goods were produced, from handmade goods to goods made by machines.

  • The invention of machines helped businesses manufacture goods much faster and more cheaply than before.

  • To manufacture is to make goods, like cloth, from raw materials, like cotton fiber.

Inventions change factories and farms
Inventions Change Factories and Farms

  • The harvesting of cotton had been given a huge boost by the invention of a young New Englander, Eli Whitney.

  • While visiting Georgia, he heard planters complain about how hard it was to clean the seeds out of cotton. This step was necessary before cotton could be sold.

  • A worker could clean only about one pound of cotton a day.

  • Eli’s machine was called a cotton gin and could clean 50 times as much cotton a day as could be done by hand.

Inventions change factories and farms1
Inventions Change Factories and Farms

  • Cyrus McCormick developed a horse-drawn mechanical reaper that harvested wheat by swinging a long blade.

  • John Deere developed a plow made of steel rather than iron. It could plow through thick soil more easily.

Inventions change factories and farms2
Inventions Change Factories and Farms

  • The new machines Americans were inventing meant that factories could produce more goods, often more cheaply.

  • Farms could grow more foods, and planters more cotton.

  • More goods and more food meant more products for people and for trade.

Moving goods and people
Moving Goods and People

  • More goods were being produced than ever before and people needed a better way to get their products to market.

  • Traveling by road, wagons would get stuck in mud and boats powered by sails or oars had difficulty traveling upstream against a river’s current.

  • Therefore, Robert Fulton, an American engineer, developed a riverboat powered by a steam engine.

Early railroads
Early Railroads

  • Railroads began simply as rails laid down in a road.

  • The rails were made of wood topped with iron.

  • Horses pulled carts running along the rails

  • Since the rails were smoother than the roads, the horses could pull the carts faster than they could pull wagons over roads.

Early railroads1
Early Railroads

  • In 1830, Peter Cooper built a steam-powered locomotive.

  • He raced the locomotive beside a horse. The locomotive was winning until a safety valve broke in the engine.

  • Over the next 20 years, railroads became the easiest and cheapest way to travel.

  • By 1840, the U.S. had about 3,000 miles of railroad tracks, almost twice as much as Europe.