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TORINO PROCESSAnalytical Framework for the Review of Vocational Education and Training Systems and Policies in IsraelMinistry of Education, The Administration of Science and Technology Ministry of Industry, Trade & LaborAuthorsDr. Ronit Ashkenazy & Ms. Refaella BallasAmal Network
Israel’s plansThis presentation provides a survey of Israel’s plans to increase the number of students in technological and vocational tracks, and in technological schools. After years of budget cuts in vocational education, Israel in 2010 is making technological and vocational education a national priority and setting objectives accordinglyInvest in the educational infrastructures, advanced workshops and laboratories in the schools as well as regional technology centresRefresher courses for teachers in cooperation with industry, Reward teachers to compete with the industrial sectorIncrease the number of students inThe Technicians with Matriculation (Tech-Mat) program, and in the “Springboard to Industry” program Improve the image of Vocational Education and Training (VET)Strengthen technological education in the national religious, the ultra-orthodox, and Arab sectors, as well as in new immigrant communities.Advance the education of girls and to reduce the educational gaps between the periphery and the urban areas in the more prosperous centre of the country.
The Structure of Technological Education in IsraelIn Israel, VET takes two distinct forms – technological-scientific education and the vocational-technical training.The Ministry of Education is responsible for the technological-scientific education through the Administration of Science and TechnologyThe Ministry of Industry, Trade and Employment maintains secondary school frameworks that provide vocational-technical training per the frameworks mandated by the Apprenticeship Law (1953), and the Youth Labour Law (1953).
Source: Scientific and Technological Administration, Ministry of Education
Vocational Training for High School Graduates (13th-14th grades)
Under the supervision of the MoE, continued studies complement the technological education of graduates, qualifying them as technicians and practical engineers, and enabling their absorption into the IDF and industry with a higher level of education, preparedness, and training. The MoITaL operates a parallel post-secondary program for students who have completed their studies.
Vocational Training for Adults (21+)
Adult training is supervised by the MoITaL’s Senior Division for Human Resources Training and Development and includes five tracks.TheInstitute for Training in Technology and Science (ITTS)supervises the training of technicians and practical engineers in technological-engineering subjects. The Institute confers the diplomas of Qualified Technician and of Practical Engineer.
Scope of Technological Education
Approximately 37% of Israel’s360,000 secondary school students are enrolled in technological education (MoE+MoITaL). In the technology tracks supervised by the MoE, approximately 115,76410th-12th grade students studied in 18 different study tracks. In addition, some4,600students studied in the Technician and Practical Engineer tracks in 13th and 14th grades; these students are directly incorporated into the labour market or work within the army in the profession acquired.
In Vocational Training for Youth under the supervision of the MoITaL, approximately 13,485 students studied in 10th-12th grades. This figure includes youth enrolled in two-year vocational courses
Distribution of students in the technological stream according to tracks, 2010:
Source: Scientific and Technological Administration, Ministry of Education
Source:The Central Bureau for Statistics,2009 tables
The Technological Education Vision
A Strategic Plan for Strengthening Technological and Vocation Education, recently presented to the Knesset and the government.. The plan’s set objectives include expanding the scope of technological education and improving its quality so that it presents an attractive alternative to academic tracks.The budget allocated to it – about NIS 260 million for the 2011-2012 years. After many years of cuts in funding and hours for technological education, a change in approach has been declared.
Programs to Promote VET byMinistry of Education:
Creating a reserve of scientific technological excellence in Israel
Review of the technological tracks and their adaptation to the needs of society and the economy
Increasing the number of technicians and practical engineers in Israel
Setting up three models of schools linked to industry
Greater student participation in national and international competitions as an incentive for the technological fields
Retraining courses for academics to teach technology and vocations
Developing educational and pedagogic leadership for technology education
Continued implementation of the reform
Upgrading laboratories and workshops
Increasingcollaboration with industry
The MoE is in the process of completing an up-to-date program for promoting vocational and technological education in response to the vocational requirements and national needs of Israel. As part of the general plan, the MoE has operated the Tech-Mat program – Technician and Matriculation – since 2006.
Developed by ORT Israel, the program is operated in cooperation with the Manufacturers Association, the IDF, and the ORT, AMAL and AMIT networks, as well as in municipally run schools.
The objectives of the Tech-Mat program are to increase the number of students in the scientific-technological education; seek out students with the potential for learning technology in order to meet the needs of the IDF and industry; and open up a wide variety of future opportunities for the student graduating high school with both a matriculation certificate and a technician’s diploma.
Multi-Year Distribution – Tech-Mat Program, 2006-2007 – 2012-2013
(Source: Scientific and Technological Administration, Ministry of Education)
Strengthening all Sectors of the Population
State ReligiousSchool Sector
The Bedouin Sector
Encouraging Girls and Women to Opt for Technology–Scientific Education
Reducing Gaps between the Periphery and the Centre
Objectives of the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labour
Developing human resource assets for the benefit of a modern economy and according to its requirementsTraining youth in programs that combine study and work; training practical engineers and technicians in colleges; training adults who wish to obtain a vocation or upgrade their occupation;
Developing work skills; reducing the social gaps in Israel by increasing participation in the workforce and reducing unemployment among weak populations;
Regulation and setting of professional standards in human resource training;, the MoITaL is currently considering updating the hierarchy of vocational instruction in Israel in keeping with international standards.
Recommendations of the Eckstein Committee:
The Committee proposes the following employment goals for the reduction of poverty:
Increasing the rate of employment in the ages 25-64 from 69.9% to 76.4% by 2020
Increasing the rate of employment in the ages 20-25 from 44.7% to 56.3% by 2020
Furthermore, the Committee recommends an objective of reducing poverty between 2010 and 2020 by
increasing the income of the bottom fifth of households by 10% more than the increase in external income in the same years.
Re-examinationof the Law of Apprenticeship and Vocational Training in Israel
In accordance with the recommendations of the Eckstein Committee, the Advisory Committee of the Minister of Industry, Trade and Labour forre-examination of the Law of Apprenticeship and Vocational Training in Israel was established in 2010.
A team was appointed to review the proposal to develop three levels of vocational qualifications and to propose a model that would be capable of growing a stable professional backbone of quality manpower needed for industry. The proposal is intended to complement the existing career tracks and to even balance between them. In addition to the existing tracks in Israel, most of which have an academic orientation, the Committee is also examining development of additional non-academic vocational tracks – with the possibility of mobility among them. New tracks would offer a worthwhile alternative to those who did not find their place in the academic track. The recommendations of the Committee will be submitted by the end of 2010.
Learning Tracks and Certification
in the Ministry of Education’s Technology Trends
Scientific engineering cluster: Electronics and computer engineering, mechanical engineering, software engineering, biotechnology and the scientific-engineering.
Technological cluster: Computerised production systems, construction and architectural engineering, industry and administration, industrial design, communication technologies, media and publishing, maritime systems, control systems and energy.
Occupational cluster: Business administration, nursing, looking after the very young, hotel management, tourism and recreation.
The principle of modularity that allows each student to accumulate learning units in every subject, from one learning unit up to five, according to personal preferences and abilities, increases the number of students entitled to the matriculation certificate among the graduates of technological education
The standard allocation of hours in technological education is higher than in theoretical education:
The following table compares the standard number of hours for a student in 10th grade in different tracks in the present school year:
In addition, monthly costs that are not salary based are higher in technological education: NIS 1,692 in contrast to NIS 897.
From the above it is clear that to expand technological education without reducing the scope of studies offered today requires a substantial increase in budget.
The budget of Vocational Education for Youth is the responsibility of the MoITaL:
As a rule, the budget for vocational education of the MoITE is calculated per student; however, there is a cap on the number of students subject to the total budget for all the frameworks.
Study Tracks and Certificates awardedby the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labour
The vocational school system under the MoITaL covers four years, where 9th grade offers preparation and direction, 10th grade provides basic the vocational studies and preparation for practical work and study, and 11th and 12th grades focus on specializationof practical work skills and studies toward the matriculation units.Vocational schools are run by various networks, the two largest being AMAL and ORT. Studies include 14 different areas of training and some 80 subjects of study.Upon completion of all the requirements, graduates in the youth frameworks are eligible for a Completion Certificate in accordance with the eligibility rules for each study track.Students who have completed their studies in classified vocations or ones that have been declared by law as vocations requiring apprenticeship, licensing or certification, are also entitled to a Vocation Certificate. In 1994, the MoITaL decided to encourage students in youth settings to sit for matriculation exams in subjects that will advance them towards technician and practical engineering studies.
Innovation, Partnership and Entrepreneurship
In vocational technological education, the scientific and technological tracks and subjects are constantly being modernised and developed through the initiative of the Ministry of Education
The technological education networks, have Pedagogical Development Training Centres, which promote educational innovation, implementation of pedagogical methods, up-to-date educational technologies and the acquisition of independent study skills in an e-learning environment.
Innovative specialisations have been integrated into the different technological tracks supervised by the MoE
Project Springboard to Industry, The Ministry of Education’s Springboard to Industry project will commence in 2011. Within this framework 10th-12th grade students will receive training in track related factories. One day a week, the students will gain on-site practical experience guided by instructors from the factories themselves
Regional Centres for Industrial Specialisation
Initiated by the MoE and the Manufacturers Association, The centres will be equipped with the most innovative modern workshops and laboratories for exercises and practical experience
Source: Science and Technology Administration, Ministry of Education
The State of Research and Development (R&D) in Israel Summary of the National Council for R&D Report 2010 (Ministry of Science and Development)
Israel is considered to be a country with a profusion of R&D and technology. Some of the indexes used to assess a country’s scientific and technological force place Israel in a very high position among the developed countries.
Ranked first in the world with respect to the ratio between national R&D expenditure and the gross domestic product as well as the number of people employed in R&D in the business sector
Has extensive international, inter-country and inter-institutional scientific and technological connections. Hundreds of Israeli researchers participate in European Common Market R&D programs.
A partner in many international research installations including the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Israel also participates as an observer in the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva.
In May 2010 Israel was accepted as a member of the OECD. Since 1997 Israel has participated as an observer on more than ten OECD R&D related committees and work groups.
The MoE Administration for Science and Technology, with the aim of making Israel one of the leading countries in this field - seeks to cultivate the field of Science and Technology by a Strategic Plan for Strengthening Technological and Vocation Education, which will be implemented from the current school year.The plan’s set objectives include expanding the scope of technological education and improving its quality so that it presents an attractive alternative to academic tracks.
Increasing collaboration with industry: Involving students in executing final projects in industry and knowledge industries, in the IDF, and also affording students experience in new industrial systems in co-operation with principals, teachers, students and Manufacturers Association in Israel.