Eoc review 3 photosynthesis cell respiration dna mitosis and protein synthesis
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EOC Review #3: Photosynthesis, Cell Respiration, DNA, Mitosis, and Protein synthesis. Christopherson. Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis I. Photosynthesis Function. To produce glucose (food) for producers The formula for glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6. Photosynthesis: How?.

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EOC Review #3: Photosynthesis, Cell Respiration, DNA, Mitosis, and Protein synthesis

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EOC Review #3: Photosynthesis, Cell Respiration, DNA, Mitosis, and Protein synthesis

Christopherson


Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis I


Photosynthesis Function

To produce glucose (food) for producers

The formula for glucose: C6H12O6


Photosynthesis: How?

Plants absorb sunlight energy, carbon dioxide and water to make glucose


Organisms that Undergo Photosynthesis: Plants


Bacteria


Protists – ex/ Green Algae


Photosynthesis: Location

Chloroplast

Chlorophyll: Pigment

Producer

Leaf

Leaf Cross-section


Pigments

Found inside the thylakoid

Absorb sunlight energy and give plants their color.


Photosynthesis Summative Equation (Formula)

Sunlight Energy

CO2

H2O

C6H12O6

O2

+

+

Reactants

What is needed

Products

What is produced


Cell Respiration I: ATP and Anaerobic Respiration

Christopherson


Purpose of Cell Respiration

The process in which glucose (food) is broken down into ATP (usable energy)

ATP

C6H12O6

C6H12O6


ATP Structure

Contains adenosine, sugar, and three phosphates


Does ATP have ENERGY?

YES


Photosynthesis Summative Equation (Formula)

C6H12O6

O2

CO2

+

H2O

ATP

+

+

Reactants

Need?

Products

Produced?


Anaerobic Respiration

Respiration that occurs without oxygen present


Organisms that undergo Anaerobic Respiration: All living things


Process: Anaerobic Respiration

Simple Organisms

Glucose:

C-C-C-C-C-C

ATP

Pyruvate:

C-C-C and C-C-C

Fermentation


Breaking down of Pyruvate: Simple Organisms - Result

Pyruvate is broken down into waste. It’s trash.

This process is Fermentation.

Pyruvate


Breaking down of Pyruvate Simple Organisms

Bacteria

Yeast


Process: Anaerobic Respiration

Complex

Organisms

Glucose:

C-C-C-C-C-C

ATP

Pyruvate:

C-C-C and C-C-C

To the Mitochondria

(Aerobic Respiration)


Aerobic Respiration

Respiration that occurs with oxygen present


Organisms that undergo Aerobic Respiration: Complex Organisms(Everything BUT Bacteria and Yeast)


Mitochondria

Function: Breaks down sugar into ATP (usable form of energy); Powerhouse of the cell

Location: Throughout the cell


Aerobic Respiration RESULT

Pyruvate

C-C-C and C-C-C

O2

O2 is the key to the mitochondria

ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP

ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP

ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP


DNA Structure and Discovery

Christopherson


DNA: Deoxyribonucleic AcidDNA is a Nucleic AcidMonomer: Nucleotide


Structure of a Nucleotide

a. Adenine

1. Phosphate

b. Thymine

c. Cytosine

d. Guanine

3. Nitrogen Base

2. Deoxyribose


Structure of DNA

Phosphate

Deoxyribose

Nitrogen Bases


Practice with Base Pairing

Sugar and Phosphate

A T C G G C T A C G A T

T A G C C G A T G C T A

Sugar and Phosphate


Cell Cycle Summary


What is a Body Cell?

All the cells that make up the “body” of an organism.


What is a Homologous Pair?

A pair of chromosomes that are very similar; one is from your mom and the other from your dad


Diploid?

Formula: 2n

n = the number of chromosomes

2 = that homologous pairs are present

-Normal number of chromosomes in organisms body cell


Total Number of Chromosomes in a Human Body Cell


Purpose of the Cell Cycle

To grow, replace old cells, or reproduction


Location of the Cell Cycle

Within an organisms body cells


1st Step of the Cell Cycle

Interphase: Cell prepares to divide by making more organelles and cytoplasm (G1 and G2); Replicates DNA (S)


2nd Step of the Cell Cycle

Mitosis: The replicated DNA is separated

Made up of PMAT

Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase


3rd Step of the Cell Cycle

Cytokinesis: The cell divides the organelles and cytoplasm into the new cell


End Result of the Cell Cycle

Two identical cells with the same number of chromosomes

Interphase

Mitosis

Cytokinesis


If an organism has 50 chromosomes and it undergoes mitosis, how many chromosomes will be present in the new cells?


If an organisms diploid number chromosome is 100, how many chromosomes will be present in the new cells?


What is a GENE?

Instruction manual for our body

Portion of the DNA that “codes” (has the directions) for a specific trait.


Where is a Gene?

  • Within DNA

  • The nitrogen bases spell out the instructions


RNA

Ribonucleic Acid

Make up of Nucleotides

Contains Phosphorus


RNA Nucleotide

A

Phosphate

Nitrogen Base

C

B

Guanine

Cytosine

Ribose

Adenine

Uracil


How is DNA different from RNA?


DNA versus RNA: # of Strands

2 strands

1 strand


DNA versus RNA: Sugar

Deoxyribose

Ribose


DNA versus RNA: Bonds with Adenine

DNA

RNA

Adenine

Thymine

Adenine

Uracil


What are the types of RNA?


mRNA Function

Copy a message from a gene on DNA

DNA

mRNA


tRNA Function

Carries amino acids to mRNA

Amino Acids

mRNA


Brief summary of Protein synthesis

A protein is made from a gene on DNA


Brief Summary of Transcription

Make mRNA from a gene on DNA


Transcription Animation #2


Transcribe the following

DNA

TAC GGC AAA TAG GAT TTT CCA TTA AGT

AUG CCG UUU AUC CUA AAA GGU AAU UCA

mRNA


Location of Translation

Ribosome


Brief Summary of Translation

Make a protein from mRNA


Amino acid

Protein

Peptide Bond

Anticodon

Met

Gly

Ser

Ser

Stop

Arg

UAC

GCG

CCU

AGG

AGU

AUU

AUG CGC GGA UCC UCA UAA

mRNA

Ribosome

Codon

Codon

First tRNA leaves and the ribosome shifts. A

new tRNA fills empty space.

rRNA forms a peptide bond between the

amino acids

A tRNA anticodon matches with a mRNA codon

Three base sequence in mRNA is called a codon

A ribosome attaches to mRNA

Another peptide bond is formed and the

process continues

Another tRNA anticodon matches with a codon

A protein has been made


Translation Animation #1


TAC GGA CAT GAC GGG AAA ACT

DNA

AUG CCU GUA CUG CCC UUU UGA

mRNA

Met – Pro – Val – Leu – Pro – Phe - STOP

Amino Acid


Mutations

Mutations


What is a mutation?

Change in the DNA

nitrogen base

sequence of a gene


How do Mutations Occur?

Damaged DNA caused by agents such as sunlight, smoke, radiation; It can also be inherited


Category of Mutation: Point

Change in one base of the DNA sequence.

Original: The fat cat ate the wee rat

Point mutation: The fat hat ate the wee rat


Example of Point Mutation: Sickle Cell Anemia


Sickle Cell Anemia: Point Mutation


Category of Mutation: Frameshift

Addition or deletion of a DNA base resulting in a different sequence of DNA.

Original: The fat cat ate the wee rat

Frameshift mutation: The fat ata tet hew eer at


Tay Sachs Disease: Frameshift Mutation


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