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Politi ki y’Igihugu y’Amashyamba. MI NITERE. Ibibazo Ibyerekezo by’ibikorwa by’ingezi Amahame ngenderwaho. HABIMANA Claudien, Directeur des Forêts. Umwaka. 1960. 1970. 1980. 1990. Ubuso/cyimeza (1000ha). 634 . 591, 8. 513, 6. 451,16. Ubuso/amaterano (1000ha). 24, 5. 27, 16. 80.

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Politi ki y’Igihugu y’Amashyamba

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Politi ki y igihugu y amashyamba l.jpg

Politikiy’Igihuguy’Amashyamba

MINITERE

  • Ibibazo

  • Ibyerekezo by’ibikorwa by’ingezi

  • Amahame ngenderwaho

HABIMANA Claudien,

Directeur des Forêts


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Umwaka

1960

1970

1980

1990

Ubuso/cyimeza (1000ha)

634

591, 8

513, 6

451,16

Ubuso/amaterano (1000ha)

24, 5

27, 16

80

247,5

Ibiti byasarurwa (1000 m3)

368

407

1 200

3 713

Ibiti bikenerwa

(1000 m3)

2 695

3 763

4 832

7 158

Igihombo (1000 m3)

-2 327

-3 356

-3 632

-3 445

Imiterere y’ibibazo mu mibare


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Umwaka

1996

1999

2000

2002

Ubuso cyimeza (1000 ha)

383 660

221 200

221 200

221 200

Ubuso amaterano (1000ha)

232 500

252 000

282 563

282 563

Ibiti byasarurwa (1000 m3)

2 790

2 268

2 261

2 261

Ibiti bikenewe (1000 m3)

6 784

7 882

8 247

8 979

Igihombo (1000m3)

-3 994

-5 614

-5 987

-6 719

Imiterere y’ibibazo mu mibare (cont.)


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Imitere y’ibibazo (cont.)

  • Kugabanyuka k’umusaruro: 15 m3(1993) kugera ku 8.5 m3/ha(2000)

  • Isuri ikabije: 557 tonnes z’ubutaka butembanwa/ha/umwaka

  • Amashyamba ahohoterwa n’ababonetse bose: kuyasarura byishe amategeko,…

  • Amashyamba make: 0.06ha/umuntu (<<1)

  • Amashyamba amwe apfa ubusa (ex: pinus)

  • Gutsemba amashyamba akagirwa imirima


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Imiterere y’ibibazo (cont.)

  • Abakozi bake cyane b’impuguke

    • Leta : 7(Ubuyobozi bw’Amashyamba: 3)

    • Ubushakashatsi: 4

    • ONG n’Abikorera: 10

  • Itegeko ry’amashyamba rirasuzugurwa, ariko ntirinazwi neza. Kandi rikeneye kuvugururwa

  • Abaterankunga bake guhera mu 1995

  • Abaturage ntibakigira umwete wo gutera ibiti, kandi nta n’ubushobozi bahabwa


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Imiterere y’ibibazo (cont.)

  • Urwego rw’Amashyamba rwatinze kwitinze kwitabwaho nyuma y’intambara na jenoside yo muri 1994.


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I. Ibibazo

A. Ipfundo ry’ibibazo:Kwangirika no kugabanyuka kw’amashyamba

Inkomoko:

  • Gutemwa kurusha uko ibiti biterwa

    • Amashyamba ntasaranganije mu Gihugu;

    • Haterwa ibiti bike tugereranije n’ibikenewe;

    • Ibiti bipfushwa ubusa (guteka, kubyubakisha cyane,…).


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I. Ibibazo

  • Gutemwa mu kajagari, akenshi adakuze

  • Amashyamba ariho acunzwe nabi

    • Imikurire y’ibiti ntikurikiranwa

    • Umutungo uriho ntiwigeze ubarurwa;

    • Ibiti biterwa hatarateganijwe icyo bizakoreshwa;

    • Amashyamba cyimeza ntacunzwe nk’uko byakagombye


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I. Ibibazo

  • Gutwikwa, indwara mu moko amwe y’ibiti

    • Urugero: Cypressus

  • Hari amashyamba atabyazwa umusaruro kandi akuze, yaranahenze Leta

    • Urugero: Pinus

  • Amafaranga ashorwa mu mashyamba ni make cyane (ex:1-7% y’ingengo ya MINAGRI);

  • Abantu benshi ntibazi akamaro amashyamba afite mu bukungu.


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    Ibibazo – inkomoko n’ingaruka

    Ingaruka z’ibyo bibazo

    • Isuri, inkangu n’imyuzure (byariyongereye) mu myaka 15 ishize

    • Kwandura kw’amazi no kugabanuka kw’ayo mu kuzimu (water tables/aquifères)

    • Kugabanyuka kw’imvura, ubushyuhe bukiyongera mu kirere no ku butaka, ubutayu bukavuka


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    Ibibazo - ingaruka

    • Kwiyongera kw’igihombo cy’ibiti;

    • Kwiyongera k’imyuka ishyushya ikirere (greenhouse gases);

    • Kugabanuka k’urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima;

    • Kwandura kw’ikirere (umukungugu), urusaku no kwangirika k’ubwiza bw’imisozi.


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    II.Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    II.1. Intego rusange:

    Guhindura urwego rw’amashyamba imwe mu nkingi z’ubukungu n‘izo kurengera ibidukikije mu Rwanda


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    II.2. Intego zihariye n’ibikorwa

    II.2.1. Kongera umutungo w’amashyamba mu ngeri nyinshi

    • Gutera ibiti ahashoboka hose;

    • Kwamamaza uburyo bwo kubangikanya ibiti n’imirima;

    • Guteza imbere amashyamba mu mijyi no hafi y’inyubako zose


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    Ingamba

    • Gushishikariza abahinzi-borozi gushora imari mu gutera ibiti mu masambu yabo;

    • Kwegereza abahinzi-borozi ingemwe;

    • Gushyiraho amategeko atuma abantu batera ibiti mu bibanza bahabwa (harimo n’ibigo);

    • Gukoma utununga n’ahantu hahanamye cyane hakagenerwa amashyamba;

    • Gukoma amashyamba amwe kugira ngo abashe kujya yisubiza (régénération naturelle)


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    II.2.2. Kuvugurura imicungire y’amashyamba

    • Kongera ubumenyi ku mashyamba dufite;

    • Kuvugurura igenamigambi n’amategeko kugira ngo ajyane n’igihe;

    • Gusarura ibiti bikuze ngo bitangirika;

    • Gusana amashyamba yangiritse;

    • Gukurikirana imikurire y’ibiti;

    • Gushyira ingufu mu kurinda amashyamba;


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    • Gutunganya no kurinda amashyamba cyimeza;

    • Gushyira intego zigomba gushingirwaho mu gihe ibiti bigomba guterwa.


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    Ingamba

    • Guha amahugurwa no gutegura ingendo-shuri ku bahinzi-borozi;

    • Gushishikariza abantu n’inzego zinyuranye gushora imari mu gucunga amashyamba y’ingeri zinyuranye;

    • Kongerera ubushobozi Uturere mu gucunga amashyamba


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    Ingamba

    • Gushyiraho ihuriro ry’inzego za Leta n’abikorera ku giti cyabo mu kujya inama ku micungire y’amashyamba;

    • Gushyira ibikorwa by’amajyambere mu nkengero z’amashyamba cyimeza;

    • Kwiga uruhare rwo kwangirika kw’amashyamba cyimeza ku moko y’ibimera biyabamo.


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    II.2.3. Kwigisha/guhugura no kwamamaza ibyerekeye amashyamba

    • Kumenyekanisha amategeko n’amabwiriza agenga imicungire y’amashyamba;

    • Gukwirakwiza amoko y’ibiti yageragejwe n’ubushakashatsi;

    • Kwigisha no guhugura abantu bose, ariko cyane cyane urubyiruko n’abagore;


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    • Kuvugurura imyigirishize n’inyandiko ku mashyamba;

    • Kwigisha mu mashuri y’ibyiciro byose ubumenyi bujyanye no kubungbunga amashyamba.


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    Ingamba

    • Gutegura no gukwirakwiza imfasha-nyigisho zoroshye;

    • Guteganya gahunda zihoraho z’amahugurwa;

    • Gushyira mu nteganya-nyigisho (curriculums) imicungire y’amashyamba;

    • Kwifashisha ICT mu kwamamza ubumenyi ku bikomokaho ku mashyamba.


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    II.2.4. Guhesha agaciro igiti n’ibindi bikomoka ku mashyamba

    • Kwamamaza ikoranabuhanga rishya ryo kubyaza ibiti ibindi bintubyiza (byaba ibiti cyangwa ibindi);

    • Gushyigikira ubucuruzi bw’ibikomoka ku giti byongerewe agaciro;

    • Kubyaza amashyamba ibindi bintu bitari ibiti guhera akiri mato (imibavu, , imiti, etc.)


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    Ingamba

    • Gushishikariza inzego zibishinzwe n’abashoramari gushaka ikoranabuhanga rikenewe;

    • Kwegereza ikoranabuhanga abatunganya n’abakora ubukorikori ku bitin’ababibaza


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    II.2.5. Gushyigikira ubushakashatsi ku mashyamba

    • Gushaka amoko meza y’ibiti by’indobanure hitawe ku miterere y’uturere no kuyamamaza;

    • Kubuza amoko meza y’ibiti gakondo gukendera no kuzimira;

    • Kwiga uburyo amashyamba yajya aterwamo amoko anyuranye y’ibiti;

    • Gushyigikira ubushakashatsi ku ndwara n’ibyonnyi by’ibiti.


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    Ingamba

    • Kongerera abashakashatsi ubushobozi

    • Gushyira mu ngiro ibyashakashatswe n’abanyeshuri (Dissertation – Mémoires)

    • Gushyiraho gahunda y’imikoranire hagati y’ibigo by’ubushakashatsi byacu n’ibyo mu bindi bihugu.


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    II.2.6. Kuzigama ibiti

    • Gushakashaka andi moko y’ibicanwa;

    • Kwamamaza uburyo bwo kuzigama inkwi

      Ingamba

    • Kubuza abantu gusarura amashyamba atarakura;

    • Kugira uruhare mu gukwirakwiza tekiniki zo kuzigama inkwi n’ibyazisimbura.


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    II.2.7. Kongerera ubushobozi inzego n’abakozi

    A. Kongera umubare w’impuguke mu by’amashyamba

    B. Kongerera ubumenyi n’ibikoresho abasanzwe bakora mu by’amashyamba

    C. Kuvugurura ishoramari mu bijyanye n’amashyamba


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    Ingamba

    • Gushyigikira gahunda z’amahugurwa y’abakozi

    • Gushishikariza abaterankunga kwita kurushaho ku rwego rw’amashyamba


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    II.2.8. Kumenya akamaro k’amashyamba mu bukungu

    • Gushaka imibare ku bucuruzi bw’ibiti n’ibigikomokaho (n’ibitari ibiti)

    • Kugereranya ingano y’ibiti bikoreshwa bidaciye mu nzira z’ubucuruzi

      Ingamba

    • Gukoresha inyigo na za kenti.


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    II.2.9. Guteza imbere ubufatanye ku rwego mpuzamahanga n’urw’akarere

    • Guhererekanya ubumenyi n’ikoranabuhanga;

    • Gufatanya imicungire y’amashyamba ahuriweho n’ibihugu, cyane cyane mu gukumira no kurwanya impanuka (indwara, rutswitsi, rushimusi, ibyonnyi);

    • Gufatanya mu bushakashatsi.


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    Ingamba

    • Kwitabira ibikorwa byo gushyira mu ngiro amaserzerano mpuzamahanga;

    • Kwitabira inama zo mu Karere n’izindi mpuzamahanga ku bushakashatsi n’imicungire y’amashyamba


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    II.2.10. Gusesengura ibibazo n‘uruhare rwa buri wese hitawe ku buringanire

    • Kugaragaza ibikenerwa n’abagabo n’abagore ku mashyamba;

    • Gushaka no gukuraho inzitizi zatuma umugore atagira uruhare mu micungire y’amashyamba.


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    II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

    Ingamba

    • Gufatanya n’inzego z’abari n’abategarugori mu gushyira mu bikorwa iyi politiki;

    • Kwita ku biranga abagabo n’abagore mu gihe cyo gutera ibikoresho n’imfashanyigisho


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    III. Amahame ngenderwaho

    1. Ingaruka mbi z’amwe mu mashyamba y’amaterano kubidukikije zizagabanywa

    • Gutera ibiti binywa amazi make;

    • Kugabanya uruhare rw’inturusi mu mashyamba ;

    • Kutarekera ibiti bikuze mu ishyamba.


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    III. Amahame ngenderwaho

    2. Iterambere ry’amashyamba y’abikorera ku giti cyabo n’abaturage rizashyirwa imbere

    Ibi bizaterwa cyane n’uko:

    • Ahantu ho gushyira amashyamba asanzwe hasigaye ari hato cyane;

    • Ubutaka buhingwa bugomba kubona ifumbire, imbuto zikaboneka (izo kurya no gukoramo ibindi biribwa mu nganda) kandi amatungo akabona ubwatsi;


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    III. Amahame ngenderwaho

    3. Uturere dufite ibibazo bikomeye mu rwego rw’ibidukikije tuzitabwaho by’umwihariko

    Utwo turere ni uturangwa n’ibi:

    • Kumagara n’imiswa bituma ibiti bitahaba neza;

    • Uturere twatemwemo amashyamba cyane

    • Ahantu h’amaregeka (ex: hashobora kuba inkangu)


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    III. Amahame ngenderwaho

    4. Inzego zose zirebwa n’ibibazo by’amashyamba zizagishwa inama mu gufata ibyemezo

    • Ubufatanye buzagaragara hagati y’inzego za Leta zirebwa n’ibibazo by’amashyamba, hamwe n’Imiryango itegamiye kuri Leta, inzego z’abari n’abategarugori n’iz’urubyiruko, amshyirahamwe y’abahinzi-borozi, etc.


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    III. Amahame ngenderwaho

    5. Nta gahunda nini yerekeye amashyamba izakorwa nta genamigambi

    • Kubera ibibazo U Rwanda rufite mu bijyanye n’isuri, kugabanyuka kw’amazi, etc, gahunda z’amashyamba zizagendera ku bumenyi bw’impuguke muri yo;

    • Hazaba na none hagamijwe gutera amashyamba ajyanye n’ibyo abantu bakeneye koko, ariko hitawe no ku bidukikije.


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    III. Amahame ngenderwaho

    6. Imicungire y’amashyamba izagendera ku byagezweho n’ubushakashatsi

    • Ibyemezo mu micungire y’amashyamba (amoko y’ibiti, uburyo akoreshwa, etc.) bizagomba kuba bishingiye ku bumenyi bugezweho muri urwo rwego.


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    III. Amahame ngenderwaho

    7. Kwegurira abikorera imicungire y’amashyamba ya Leta bizakorwa buhoro buhoro

    • Amasezerano mashya yo gucungisha amashyamba ya Leta izindi nzego azajya agendera ku byagezweho mu masezerano yabanje (byatangiye mu 2003).


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    III. Amahame ngenderwaho

    8. Ishyamba ryose, hatarebwe nyiraryo, rirebererwa mu rwego rw’inyungu rusange

    • Ishyamba iyo ryangiritse ntibigira ingaruka gusa aho riri, bigera n’ahandi kure (isuri, imvura igabanyuka, etc.);

    • Amashyamba afite uruhare runini mu bidukikije (Igiti=inkingi y’ibidukikije);

    • Kubera izo mpamvu, nta muntu uzemererwa gufata ishyamba rye uko yishakiye.


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    IV1. Ibizifashishwa

    • Inzego z’ubuyobozi mu baturage

    • Inzego z’imicungire y’amashyamba ziriho kandi zirimo guhabwa ingufu (MINITERE, SPF, FFN n’imishinga)

    • Ibibazo by’amashyamba bimaze kuba ibibazo bihuriweho n’inzego nyinshi (Ingufu, kurwanya, isuri, amazi, kurwanya ubukene, etc.);

    • Ihuriro mpuzamahanga n’amasezerano y’akarere ku mashyamba (UNFF, CEFDHAC)


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    IV2. Imbogamizi

    • Ahantu ho gutera ibiti ni hato cyane kandi ni habi cyane

      • Turakeka ko hatarenga 50.000 ha

    • Urebye nta nzego zihari zo kugeza ku bahinzi-borozi ubumenyi na tekiniki ku mashyamba (ikibazo cy’amikoro y’igihugu);

    • Abanyarwanda ntibagishishikarira gutera ibiti n’amashyamba;

    • Amashyamba atinda kubyara inyungu zifatika, kandi ntiziba zizewe neza.


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