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Politi ki y’Igihugu y’Amashyamba. MI NITERE. Ibibazo Ibyerekezo by’ibikorwa by’ingezi Amahame ngenderwaho. HABIMANA Claudien, Directeur des Forêts. Umwaka. 1960. 1970. 1980. 1990. Ubuso/cyimeza (1000ha). 634 . 591, 8. 513, 6. 451,16. Ubuso/amaterano (1000ha). 24, 5. 27, 16. 80.

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politi ki y igihugu y amashyamba

Politikiy’Igihuguy’Amashyamba

MINITERE

  • Ibibazo
  • Ibyerekezo by’ibikorwa by’ingezi
  • Amahame ngenderwaho

HABIMANA Claudien,

Directeur des Forêts

imiterere y ibibazo mu mibare

Umwaka

1960

1970

1980

1990

Ubuso/cyimeza (1000ha)

634

591, 8

513, 6

451,16

Ubuso/amaterano (1000ha)

24, 5

27, 16

80

247,5

Ibiti byasarurwa (1000 m3)

368

407

1 200

3 713

Ibiti bikenerwa

(1000 m3)

2 695

3 763

4 832

7 158

Igihombo (1000 m3)

-2 327

-3 356

-3 632

-3 445

Imiterere y’ibibazo mu mibare
imiterere y ibibazo mu mibare cont

Umwaka

1996

1999

2000

2002

Ubuso cyimeza (1000 ha)

383 660

221 200

221 200

221 200

Ubuso amaterano (1000ha)

232 500

252 000

282 563

282 563

Ibiti byasarurwa (1000 m3)

2 790

2 268

2 261

2 261

Ibiti bikenewe (1000 m3)

6 784

7 882

8 247

8 979

Igihombo (1000m3)

-3 994

-5 614

-5 987

-6 719

Imiterere y’ibibazo mu mibare (cont.)
imitere y ibibazo cont
Imitere y’ibibazo (cont.)
  • Kugabanyuka k’umusaruro: 15 m3(1993) kugera ku 8.5 m3/ha(2000)
  • Isuri ikabije: 557 tonnes z’ubutaka butembanwa/ha/umwaka
  • Amashyamba ahohoterwa n’ababonetse bose: kuyasarura byishe amategeko,…
  • Amashyamba make: 0.06ha/umuntu (<<1)
  • Amashyamba amwe apfa ubusa (ex: pinus)
  • Gutsemba amashyamba akagirwa imirima
imiterere y ibibazo cont
Imiterere y’ibibazo (cont.)
  • Abakozi bake cyane b’impuguke
    • Leta : 7(Ubuyobozi bw’Amashyamba: 3)
    • Ubushakashatsi: 4
    • ONG n’Abikorera: 10
  • Itegeko ry’amashyamba rirasuzugurwa, ariko ntirinazwi neza. Kandi rikeneye kuvugururwa
  • Abaterankunga bake guhera mu 1995
  • Abaturage ntibakigira umwete wo gutera ibiti, kandi nta n’ubushobozi bahabwa
imiterere y ibibazo cont7
Imiterere y’ibibazo (cont.)
  • Urwego rw’Amashyamba rwatinze kwitinze kwitabwaho nyuma y’intambara na jenoside yo muri 1994.
i ibibazo
I. Ibibazo

A. Ipfundo ry’ibibazo:Kwangirika no kugabanyuka kw’amashyamba

Inkomoko:

  • Gutemwa kurusha uko ibiti biterwa
    • Amashyamba ntasaranganije mu Gihugu;
    • Haterwa ibiti bike tugereranije n’ibikenewe;
    • Ibiti bipfushwa ubusa (guteka, kubyubakisha cyane,…).
i ibibazo9
I. Ibibazo
  • Gutemwa mu kajagari, akenshi adakuze
  • Amashyamba ariho acunzwe nabi
    • Imikurire y’ibiti ntikurikiranwa
    • Umutungo uriho ntiwigeze ubarurwa;
    • Ibiti biterwa hatarateganijwe icyo bizakoreshwa;
    • Amashyamba cyimeza ntacunzwe nk’uko byakagombye
i ibibazo10
I. Ibibazo
  • Gutwikwa, indwara mu moko amwe y’ibiti
      • Urugero: Cypressus
  • Hari amashyamba atabyazwa umusaruro kandi akuze, yaranahenze Leta
      • Urugero: Pinus
  • Amafaranga ashorwa mu mashyamba ni make cyane (ex:1-7% y’ingengo ya MINAGRI);
  • Abantu benshi ntibazi akamaro amashyamba afite mu bukungu.
ibibazo inkomoko n ingaruka
Ibibazo – inkomoko n’ingaruka

Ingaruka z’ibyo bibazo

  • Isuri, inkangu n’imyuzure (byariyongereye) mu myaka 15 ishize
  • Kwandura kw’amazi no kugabanuka kw’ayo mu kuzimu (water tables/aquifères)
  • Kugabanyuka kw’imvura, ubushyuhe bukiyongera mu kirere no ku butaka, ubutayu bukavuka
ibibazo ingaruka
Ibibazo - ingaruka
  • Kwiyongera kw’igihombo cy’ibiti;
  • Kwiyongera k’imyuka ishyushya ikirere (greenhouse gases);
  • Kugabanuka k’urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima;
  • Kwandura kw’ikirere (umukungugu), urusaku no kwangirika k’ubwiza bw’imisozi.
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba
II.Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

II.1. Intego rusange:

Guhindura urwego rw’amashyamba imwe mu nkingi z’ubukungu n‘izo kurengera ibidukikije mu Rwanda

slide14
II.2. Intego zihariye n’ibikorwa

II.2.1. Kongera umutungo w’amashyamba mu ngeri nyinshi

  • Gutera ibiti ahashoboka hose;
  • Kwamamaza uburyo bwo kubangikanya ibiti n’imirima;
  • Guteza imbere amashyamba mu mijyi no hafi y’inyubako zose
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba15
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

Ingamba

  • Gushishikariza abahinzi-borozi gushora imari mu gutera ibiti mu masambu yabo;
  • Kwegereza abahinzi-borozi ingemwe;
  • Gushyiraho amategeko atuma abantu batera ibiti mu bibanza bahabwa (harimo n’ibigo);
  • Gukoma utununga n’ahantu hahanamye cyane hakagenerwa amashyamba;
  • Gukoma amashyamba amwe kugira ngo abashe kujya yisubiza (régénération naturelle)
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba16
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

II.2.2. Kuvugurura imicungire y’amashyamba

  • Kongera ubumenyi ku mashyamba dufite;
  • Kuvugurura igenamigambi n’amategeko kugira ngo ajyane n’igihe;
  • Gusarura ibiti bikuze ngo bitangirika;
  • Gusana amashyamba yangiritse;
  • Gukurikirana imikurire y’ibiti;
  • Gushyira ingufu mu kurinda amashyamba;
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba17
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba
  • Gutunganya no kurinda amashyamba cyimeza;
  • Gushyira intego zigomba gushingirwaho mu gihe ibiti bigomba guterwa.
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba18
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

Ingamba

  • Guha amahugurwa no gutegura ingendo-shuri ku bahinzi-borozi;
  • Gushishikariza abantu n’inzego zinyuranye gushora imari mu gucunga amashyamba y’ingeri zinyuranye;
  • Kongerera ubushobozi Uturere mu gucunga amashyamba
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba19
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

Ingamba

  • Gushyiraho ihuriro ry’inzego za Leta n’abikorera ku giti cyabo mu kujya inama ku micungire y’amashyamba;
  • Gushyira ibikorwa by’amajyambere mu nkengero z’amashyamba cyimeza;
  • Kwiga uruhare rwo kwangirika kw’amashyamba cyimeza ku moko y’ibimera biyabamo.
ii 2 3 kwigisha guhugura no kwamamaza ibyerekeye amashyamba
II.2.3. Kwigisha/guhugura no kwamamaza ibyerekeye amashyamba
  • Kumenyekanisha amategeko n’amabwiriza agenga imicungire y’amashyamba;
  • Gukwirakwiza amoko y’ibiti yageragejwe n’ubushakashatsi;
  • Kwigisha no guhugura abantu bose, ariko cyane cyane urubyiruko n’abagore;
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba21
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba
  • Kuvugurura imyigirishize n’inyandiko ku mashyamba;
  • Kwigisha mu mashuri y’ibyiciro byose ubumenyi bujyanye no kubungbunga amashyamba.
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba22
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

Ingamba

  • Gutegura no gukwirakwiza imfasha-nyigisho zoroshye;
  • Guteganya gahunda zihoraho z’amahugurwa;
  • Gushyira mu nteganya-nyigisho (curriculums) imicungire y’amashyamba;
  • Kwifashisha ICT mu kwamamza ubumenyi ku bikomokaho ku mashyamba.
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba23
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

II.2.4. Guhesha agaciro igiti n’ibindi bikomoka ku mashyamba

  • Kwamamaza ikoranabuhanga rishya ryo kubyaza ibiti ibindi bintubyiza (byaba ibiti cyangwa ibindi);
  • Gushyigikira ubucuruzi bw’ibikomoka ku giti byongerewe agaciro;
  • Kubyaza amashyamba ibindi bintu bitari ibiti guhera akiri mato (imibavu, , imiti, etc.)
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba24
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

Ingamba

  • Gushishikariza inzego zibishinzwe n’abashoramari gushaka ikoranabuhanga rikenewe;
  • Kwegereza ikoranabuhanga abatunganya n’abakora ubukorikori ku bitin’ababibaza
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba25
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

II.2.5. Gushyigikira ubushakashatsi ku mashyamba

  • Gushaka amoko meza y’ibiti by’indobanure hitawe ku miterere y’uturere no kuyamamaza;
  • Kubuza amoko meza y’ibiti gakondo gukendera no kuzimira;
  • Kwiga uburyo amashyamba yajya aterwamo amoko anyuranye y’ibiti;
  • Gushyigikira ubushakashatsi ku ndwara n’ibyonnyi by’ibiti.
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba26
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

Ingamba

  • Kongerera abashakashatsi ubushobozi
  • Gushyira mu ngiro ibyashakashatswe n’abanyeshuri (Dissertation – Mémoires)
  • Gushyiraho gahunda y’imikoranire hagati y’ibigo by’ubushakashatsi byacu n’ibyo mu bindi bihugu.
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba27
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

II.2.6. Kuzigama ibiti

  • Gushakashaka andi moko y’ibicanwa;
  • Kwamamaza uburyo bwo kuzigama inkwi

Ingamba

  • Kubuza abantu gusarura amashyamba atarakura;
  • Kugira uruhare mu gukwirakwiza tekiniki zo kuzigama inkwi n’ibyazisimbura.
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba28
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

II.2.7. Kongerera ubushobozi inzego n’abakozi

A. Kongera umubare w’impuguke mu by’amashyamba

B. Kongerera ubumenyi n’ibikoresho abasanzwe bakora mu by’amashyamba

C. Kuvugurura ishoramari mu bijyanye n’amashyamba

ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba29
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

Ingamba

  • Gushyigikira gahunda z’amahugurwa y’abakozi
  • Gushishikariza abaterankunga kwita kurushaho ku rwego rw’amashyamba
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba30
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

II.2.8. Kumenya akamaro k’amashyamba mu bukungu

  • Gushaka imibare ku bucuruzi bw’ibiti n’ibigikomokaho (n’ibitari ibiti)
  • Kugereranya ingano y’ibiti bikoreshwa bidaciye mu nzira z’ubucuruzi

Ingamba

  • Gukoresha inyigo na za kenti.
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba31
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

II.2.9. Guteza imbere ubufatanye ku rwego mpuzamahanga n’urw’akarere

  • Guhererekanya ubumenyi n’ikoranabuhanga;
  • Gufatanya imicungire y’amashyamba ahuriweho n’ibihugu, cyane cyane mu gukumira no kurwanya impanuka (indwara, rutswitsi, rushimusi, ibyonnyi);
  • Gufatanya mu bushakashatsi.
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba32
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

Ingamba

  • Kwitabira ibikorwa byo gushyira mu ngiro amaserzerano mpuzamahanga;
  • Kwitabira inama zo mu Karere n’izindi mpuzamahanga ku bushakashatsi n’imicungire y’amashyamba
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba33
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

II.2.10. Gusesengura ibibazo n‘uruhare rwa buri wese hitawe ku buringanire

  • Kugaragaza ibikenerwa n’abagabo n’abagore ku mashyamba;
  • Gushaka no gukuraho inzitizi zatuma umugore atagira uruhare mu micungire y’amashyamba.
ii intego ibikorwa n ingamba34
II. Intego, ibikorwa n’ingamba

Ingamba

  • Gufatanya n’inzego z’abari n’abategarugori mu gushyira mu bikorwa iyi politiki;
  • Kwita ku biranga abagabo n’abagore mu gihe cyo gutera ibikoresho n’imfashanyigisho
iii amahame ngenderwaho
III. Amahame ngenderwaho

1. Ingaruka mbi z’amwe mu mashyamba y’amaterano kubidukikije zizagabanywa

  • Gutera ibiti binywa amazi make;
  • Kugabanya uruhare rw’inturusi mu mashyamba ;
  • Kutarekera ibiti bikuze mu ishyamba.
iii amahame ngenderwaho36
III. Amahame ngenderwaho

2. Iterambere ry’amashyamba y’abikorera ku giti cyabo n’abaturage rizashyirwa imbere

Ibi bizaterwa cyane n’uko:

  • Ahantu ho gushyira amashyamba asanzwe hasigaye ari hato cyane;
  • Ubutaka buhingwa bugomba kubona ifumbire, imbuto zikaboneka (izo kurya no gukoramo ibindi biribwa mu nganda) kandi amatungo akabona ubwatsi;
iii amahame ngenderwaho37
III. Amahame ngenderwaho

3. Uturere dufite ibibazo bikomeye mu rwego rw’ibidukikije tuzitabwaho by’umwihariko

Utwo turere ni uturangwa n’ibi:

  • Kumagara n’imiswa bituma ibiti bitahaba neza;
  • Uturere twatemwemo amashyamba cyane
  • Ahantu h’amaregeka (ex: hashobora kuba inkangu)
iii amahame ngenderwaho38
III. Amahame ngenderwaho

4. Inzego zose zirebwa n’ibibazo by’amashyamba zizagishwa inama mu gufata ibyemezo

  • Ubufatanye buzagaragara hagati y’inzego za Leta zirebwa n’ibibazo by’amashyamba, hamwe n’Imiryango itegamiye kuri Leta, inzego z’abari n’abategarugori n’iz’urubyiruko, amshyirahamwe y’abahinzi-borozi, etc.
iii amahame ngenderwaho39
III. Amahame ngenderwaho

5. Nta gahunda nini yerekeye amashyamba izakorwa nta genamigambi

  • Kubera ibibazo U Rwanda rufite mu bijyanye n’isuri, kugabanyuka kw’amazi, etc, gahunda z’amashyamba zizagendera ku bumenyi bw’impuguke muri yo;
  • Hazaba na none hagamijwe gutera amashyamba ajyanye n’ibyo abantu bakeneye koko, ariko hitawe no ku bidukikije.
iii amahame ngenderwaho40
III. Amahame ngenderwaho

6. Imicungire y’amashyamba izagendera ku byagezweho n’ubushakashatsi

  • Ibyemezo mu micungire y’amashyamba (amoko y’ibiti, uburyo akoreshwa, etc.) bizagomba kuba bishingiye ku bumenyi bugezweho muri urwo rwego.
iii amahame ngenderwaho41
III. Amahame ngenderwaho

7. Kwegurira abikorera imicungire y’amashyamba ya Leta bizakorwa buhoro buhoro

  • Amasezerano mashya yo gucungisha amashyamba ya Leta izindi nzego azajya agendera ku byagezweho mu masezerano yabanje (byatangiye mu 2003).
iii amahame ngenderwaho42
III. Amahame ngenderwaho

8. Ishyamba ryose, hatarebwe nyiraryo, rirebererwa mu rwego rw’inyungu rusange

  • Ishyamba iyo ryangiritse ntibigira ingaruka gusa aho riri, bigera n’ahandi kure (isuri, imvura igabanyuka, etc.);
  • Amashyamba afite uruhare runini mu bidukikije (Igiti=inkingi y’ibidukikije);
  • Kubera izo mpamvu, nta muntu uzemererwa gufata ishyamba rye uko yishakiye.
iv 1 ibizifashishwa
IV1. Ibizifashishwa
  • Inzego z’ubuyobozi mu baturage
  • Inzego z’imicungire y’amashyamba ziriho kandi zirimo guhabwa ingufu (MINITERE, SPF, FFN n’imishinga)
  • Ibibazo by’amashyamba bimaze kuba ibibazo bihuriweho n’inzego nyinshi (Ingufu, kurwanya, isuri, amazi, kurwanya ubukene, etc.);
  • Ihuriro mpuzamahanga n’amasezerano y’akarere ku mashyamba (UNFF, CEFDHAC)
iv 2 imbogamizi
IV2. Imbogamizi
  • Ahantu ho gutera ibiti ni hato cyane kandi ni habi cyane
    • Turakeka ko hatarenga 50.000 ha
  • Urebye nta nzego zihari zo kugeza ku bahinzi-borozi ubumenyi na tekiniki ku mashyamba (ikibazo cy’amikoro y’igihugu);
  • Abanyarwanda ntibagishishikarira gutera ibiti n’amashyamba;
  • Amashyamba atinda kubyara inyungu zifatika, kandi ntiziba zizewe neza.