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Logic Values. 0:logic 0 / false 1:logic 1 / true X:unknown logic value Z:high-impedance. Strength levels. Data Types. Nets Connects between hardware elements Must be continuously driven by Continuous assignment (assign) Module or gate instantiation (output ports)

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logic values
Logic Values
  • 0:logic 0 / false
  • 1:logic 1 / true
  • X:unknown logic value
  • Z:high-impedance
data types
Data Types
  • Nets
    • Connects between hardware elements
    • Must be continuously driven by
      • Continuous assignment (assign)
      • Module or gate instantiation (output ports)
    • Default initial value for a wire is “Z” (and for a trireg is “x”)
  • Registers
    • Represent data storage elements
    • Retain value until another value is placed on to them
    • Similar to “variables” in other high level language
    • Different to edge-triggered flip-flop in real ciucuits
    • Do not need clock
    • Default initial value for a reg is “X”
slide4
Examples

reg a; // a scalar register

wand w; // a scalar net of type “wire and”

reg [3:0] v; // a 4-bit vector register from msb to lsb

reg [7:0] m, n; // two 8-bit registers

tri [15:0] busa; // a 16-bit tri-state bus

wire [0:31] w1, w2;

// Two 32-bit wires with msb being the 0 bit, not recommended

net types
Net Types
  • The most common and important net types
    • wire and tri
      • for standard interconnection wires
      • wire: single driver e.g. output of “and” gate
      • tri: multiple driver e.g. multiplexer
    • supply1 and supply0  “x”
    • strong1 and supply1  “supply1”
net types1
Net Types
  • Other wire types
    • wand, wor, triand, and trior
      • for multiple drivers that are wired-anded and wired-ored
    • tri0 and tri1
      • pull down and pull up
    • trireg
      • for net with capacitive storage
      • If all drivers at z, previous value is retained
      • Two states:
        • Driven state: at least one driver drives 0, 1, x
        • Capacitive state:
          • all driver have high impedance “z”
          • Strength: small, medium, large; default is medium
an example for wire tri0 tri1
An example for wire, tri0, tri1
  • module tritest();
  • wire w1, w2, w3, w4;
  • tri0 t01, t02, t03, t04;
  • tri1 t11, t12, t13, t14;
  • assign w1 = 0;
  • assign t01 = 0;
  • assign t11 = 0;
  • assign w2 = 1\'bz;
  • assign t02 = 1\'bz;
  • assign t12 = 1\'bz;
  • assign w3 = 1;
  • assign t03 = 1;
  • assign t13 = 1;
  • Initial
  • begin
  • #1;$display(w1, w2, w3, w4);
  • $display(t01, t02, t03, t04);
  • $display(t11, t12, t13, t14);
  • end
  • endmodule

Results:

0 z 1 z 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1

register types
Register Types
  • reg
    • any size, unsigned
  • Integer
    • integet a,b; // declaration
    • 32-bit signed (2’s complement)
  • Time
    • 64-bit unsigned, behaves like a 64-bit reg
    • $display(“At %t, value=%d”,$time,val_now)
  • real
    • real c,d; //declaration
    • 64-bit real number
    • Defaults to an initial value of 0
numbers negative numbers
Numbers & Negative Numbers
  • Constant numbers are integer or real constants. Integer constants are written as “width ‘radix value”
  • The radix indicates the type of number
    • Decimal(d or D)
    • Hex (h or H)
    • Octal (o or O)
    • Binary (b or B)
  • A number may be sized or unsized
number specification continue
Number Specification (continue)
  • Sized numbers
    • <size>’<base_format><number>
      • <size> is in decimal and specifies the number of bits
      • ‘<base_format> is: ‘d ‘D ‘h ‘H ‘b ‘B ‘o ‘O
      • The <number> digits are 0-f, uppercase may be used
    • Examples:
      • 4’b1111
      • 12’habc
      • 16’d255
      • 6’h3a // Binary 111010
      • 1’bx // One-bit X
      • 32’bz // 32 bits of High-Z (impedance)
number specification
Number Specification
  • Unsized numbers – The <size> is not specified (default is simulator/compiler specific, >= 32 bits)
    • Numbers without a base are decimal by default
    • Examples
      • 100 // Decimal 100, 32 bits by default
example
Example

assign A1 = (3+2) %2; // A1 = 1

assign A2 = 4 >> 1; assign A4 = 1 << 2; // A2 = 2 A4 = 4

assign Ax = (1= =1\'bx); //Ax=x

assign Bx = (1\'bx!=1\'bz); //Bx=x

assign D0 = (1= =0); //D0=False

assign D1 = (1= =1); //D1=True

assign E0 = (1= = =1\'bx); //E0=False

assign E1 = (4\'b01xz = = = 4\'b01xz);; //E1=True

assign F1 = (4\'bxxxx = = = 4\'bxxxx); //F1= True

assign x = a ? b : c //if (a) then x = b else x = c

concatenation operator
Concatenation operator

// A=1’b1; B=2’b00, C=2’b10; D=3’b110;

Y={B, C} //Result Y is 4’b0010

Y={A, B, C, D, 3’b001} //Result Y is 11’b10010110001

Y={A, B[0], C[1]} // Result Y is 3’b101

replication operator
Replication operator
  • Reg A;
  • Reg [1:0] B, C;
  • Reg [2:0] D;
  • A=1’b1; B=2’b00, C=2’b10; D=3’b110;
  • Y={4{A}} // Result Y is 4’b1111
  • Y={4{A}, 2{B}} // Result Y is 8’b11110000
  • Y ={4{A}, 2{B}, C} //Result Y is 8’b1111000010
example multiplexer 1
Example – Multiplexer_1
  • // Verilog code for Multiplexer implementation using assign// File name: mux1.v // by Harsha Perla for http://electrosofts.com// [email protected]// Available at http://electrosofts.com/verilogmodule mux1( select, d, q );input [1:0] select;input [3:0] d;output q;wire q;wire[1:0] select;wire[3:0] d;assign q = d[select];endmodule
example multiplexer 2
Example – Multiplexer_2

// Verilog code for Multiplexer implementation using always block.

// by Harsha Perla for http://electrosofts.com

// [email protected]

// Available at http://electrosofts.com/verilog

module mux2( select, d, q );

input[1:0] select;

input[3:0] d;

output q;

regq;

wire[1:0] select;

wire[3:0] d;

always @(d or select)

q = d[select];

endmodule

example multiplexer 3
Example – Multiplexer_3

module mux4_1 (out, in0, in1, in2, in3, sel) ;

output out ;

input in0,in1,in2,in3 ;

input [1:0] sel ;

assign out = (sel == 2\'b00) ? in0 :

(sel == 2\'b01) ? in1 :

(sel == 2\'b10) ? in2 :

(sel == 2\'b11) ? in3 :

1\'bx ;

endmodule

exercise
Exercise
  • Design an 1-to-8 Demultiplexer
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