Lesson #1. Chapter 11 Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Essentials. Characterize the scope of biodiversity on Earth. • Biodiversity can be thought of at three levels commonly called species diversity, genetic diversity, and ecosystem diversity.
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Characterize the scope of biodiversity on Earth.
• Biodiversity can be thought of at three levels commonly called species diversity, genetic diversity, and ecosystem diversity.
• Roughly 1.7 – 2.0 million species have been described so far, but scientist agree that the world holds millions more.
Characterize the scope of biodiversity on Earth. (con’t)
Contrast background extinction rates with periods of mass extinctions.
Evaluate the primary causes of biodiversity loss.
Specify the benefits of biodiversity.
Assess the science and practice of conservation biology.
Compare and contrast traditional and innovative biodiversity conservation efforts.
… biodiversity hotspots
Lab: Food for Thought… Tropic Levels
Energy pyramids, otherwise known as trophic level diagrams, are used to represent the flow of energy through an ecosystem. This lab provides information on food chains, energy pyramids and let you do some problem solving. As you do these, you will think about the benefits and drawbacks of eating at lower trophic levels.
A form of agriculture that is more centralized and uses technology such as mechanized groundwater irrigation systems and production of fertilizers in order to grow crops.
The planting of large areas with a single species or even a single strain or subspecies in farming.
Explain the importance of soils to agriculture, and describe the impacts of agriculture on soils.
We lose 5-7 million ha (12-17 million acres) of productive cropland annually
The process of creating a desert where there was not one before. Farming in marginal grasslands, which destroys the soil and prevents the future recovery of natural vegetation, is an example of desertification.
The buildup of salts in surface soil layers.
Since soil is composed of living and non-living matter, it is considered an ecosystem
Silty soils with medium-size pores, or loamy soils with mixtures of pore sizes are best for plant growth and crop agriculture
Despite conservation measures, the U.S. still loses 6 tons of soil for every ton of grain harvested
Salinization inhibits production of 20% of all irrigated cropland, costing more than $11 billion/year
Applying synthetic fertilizer, vs.
Planting rye, a “green manure”
70% of the world’s rangeland is classified as degraded
Along withfarming and ranching, forestry impacts soils
Clear-cutting = the removal of all trees from an area at once
Leads to soil erosion, especially on steep slopes
Modern methods remove fewer trees over longer periods of time
Minimizes soil erosion
The practice of alternating the kind of crop grown in a particular field from one season or year to the next.
Plowing land along topographic contours, perpendicular to the slope—as much in the horizontal plane as possible, thereby decreasing the erosion rate.
Services and governments devise innovative policies and programs to reduce soil erosion and boost crop yields.
Food Security Act of 1985: Farmers that adopt soil conservation plan receive price supports and other benefits
Conservation Reserve Program (1985)
Farmers are paid to place highly erodible land into conservation reserves
Trees and grasses are planted instead of crops
Saves 771 million tons of topsoil per year
Generates income for farmers
Provides habitat for native wildlife
Known as the Freedom to Farm Act
Aimed to reduce subsidies and government influence over farm products
Created the Environmental Quality Incentive Program and Natural Resource Conservation Foundation
Promotes and pays for conservation practices in agriculture
Low-Input Sustainable Agriculture Program (1998)
Provides funding for sustainable agricultural practices for individual farmers
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) = the United Nations’ main agricultural program
The FAO’s Farmer-Centered Agricultural Resource Management Program (FAR)…
Helps farmers duplicate agricultural success stories
Uses local communities to educate and encourage farmers to conserve soils and secure the food supply
Supports innovative approaches to resource management and sustainable agriculture in around the world
China, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Nepal
Lab: Soil Salinization
Students will conduct an experiment to investigate how salinization affects germination of crop seeds, then determine at what salt concentration seeds no longer germinate.
To involve students in a real world scientific investigation in which they design an experiment to determine how the concentration of salt in water affects the germination rate of seeds.
Salt buildup is a potential problem on almost all of the irrigated farmland in the United States. Much of the world\'s unused land is in arid or semiarid regions where irrigation would be necessary to grow crops. A small amount of salt in the soil will not affect the germination and growth of crops. Eventually, however, if salt concentrations increase, negative impacts occur. Eventually salt concentrations will affect the germination of seeds. Farmers need to know the relationship between the salt concentration and the percent of seeds that will germinate.
Salt kills germinating seedlings by removing the H2O from their cells. There are several salts that are responsible but this lab will involve only one, sodium chloride (NaCl). From your results you can assume that other salt concentrations would also affect germination rate. NaCl has a solubility of 35.7g/100 ml of H2O. Ocean water has a concentration of 3.5% which is 3.5g/100 ml of H2O. Freshwater has a concentration of 0.005% salt, which is 0.005g/100 ml of H2O.
1) After reading the first part of the lab, the “problem” has been identified. Formulate a hypothesis.
2) Identify the independent and dependent variables. To do this, make a question: What is the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable? This will tell not only the variables but also which variable to put on each axis of the graph. Remember, the x-axis is the horizontal axis and always is the independent variable. The y-axis is the vertical axis and is the dependent variable. (See Analysis Questions 2-3).
3) Decide what will be used as a control. Identify the constants in the experiment. (See Analysis Question #1).
4) Keep accurate data tables and check on the experiment daily.
Data Table 1: Daily Log
Data Table 2: Summary of Results