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1-4. State of the Art & Issues. Reference Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges”, pp. 35-66, National Research Council, National Academic Press, 1995. Areas of the study application domains psychological issues VR technologies evaluation of VR systems.

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1 4 state of the art issues

1-4. State of the Art & Issues

  • Reference

    • Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges”, pp. 35-66, National Research Council, National Academic Press, 1995.

  • Areas of the study

    • application domains

    • psychological issues

    • VR technologies

    • evaluation of VR systems


1 application domains

1. application domains

  • design, manufacturing & marketing

  • medicine, health care

  • hazardous operations

  • training

  • entertainment, military

  • experimental psychology

  • education

  • information visualization

  • tele-communication, tele-travel


2 psychological topics

2. psychological topics

  • human performance characteristics

  • alteration of sensori-motor loops

  • developing the cognitive model

  • cognitive side-effect


3 vr technologies

3. VR technologies

  • Gap between the current technology

    the required technology

    (exception -- entertainment, tele-operation)

    (1) human-machine interface

    (2) computer generation of VE

    (3) tele-robotics

    (4) network


Human machine interface

human-machine interface

  • visual channel

  • auditory channel

  • haptic channel

  • motion interface

  • others

  • position tracking

  • video camera

  • microphone

  • others


Visual channel

visual channel

  • visual display

    • HMD

    • OHD (off-head display)

  • perceptual effects

    • mis-registration

    • sensori-motor alteration

    • distortion

    • time-delay

    • noise


1 4 state of the art issues

  • research issues

    • ergonomics

    • improvement of resolution and fov

    • wireless

    • integration of visual, auditory, position tracking

    • sun glass-like

    • see-through option

    • exploiting foveal and peripheral vision


Auditory channel

auditory channel

  • Current hardware is adequate.

  • Research issues

    • perceptual issues

      • similar to the visual channel

      • use for sensory substitution (for visual, haptic)

    • auditory scene analysis

    • hear-through display


Position tracking and mapping

position tracking and mapping

  • tracking = finding a point

    mapping = finding a 3D surface

    (e.g., environmental mapping)

  • tracking mechanisms

    • mechanical linkage

    • magnetic

    • optical

    • acoustic

    • intertial


1 4 state of the art issues

  • eye tracking

  • research issues

    • tracking

    • mapping


Haptic channel

haptic channel

  • force, pressure, tactile feedback

  • unique characteristics

    • Haptic interface requires manipulation and sensing

  • mechanism

    • body-based -- glove, exoskeleton

    • ground-based -- joystick


1 4 state of the art issues

  • Research issues

    • haptic science = study on the human haptics

      (bio-mechanical, psychophysical, cognitive)

    • tool-hand system (which takes its metaphor from real tools.)

    • creating the haptic illusion

    • the interaction effects of haptic and vision

    • texture, temperature devices


Motion interface

motion interface

  • motion

    • whole-body motion

      • passive -- e.g., motion platform

      • active -- e.g., locomotion

    • part-body motion

      • passive

      • active


1 4 state of the art issues

  • motion cues

    • vestibular system -- inertial

    • motor

    • visual

    • auditory

    • proprioceptive / kinesthetic -- muscle

    • tactile


1 4 state of the art issues

  • motion interface

    • inertial system

      • moves the body (e.g., treadmill, motion platform)

    • non-inertial system

      • simulates motion


Other types of interfaces

other types of interfaces

  • olfactory (smell)

  • gustatory (taste)

  • heat, wind, humidity

  • speech

  • direct physiological sensing and control


Vr technologies

VR technologies

(1) human-machine interface

(2) computer generation of VE

(3) tele-robotics

(4) network


Conceptual model of vr

Conceptual Model of VR

Virtual environment

Human

H-sensor

perception

cognition

motion control

H-effector

V-sensor

V-effector

sensing

action

P-effector

L-effector

sensing

output device

input device

action

P-sensor

L-sensor

joystick

mouse

tracker

TV camera

microphone

2D - selector

pick

locator

etc.

3D - navigator

manipulator

etc.

V-human

V-vehicle

V-bike

V-hand

etc.


2 generation of virtual environments

(2) generation of virtual environments

  • the core issue

  • general-purpose VR system?

  • trade-off between realism and interactivity

  • requirements

    • frame rate

    • response time

    • scene quality


1 4 state of the art issues

  • hardware

  • interaction and navigation

  • VE management

    • simulation

    • rendering

  • modeling

  • autonomous agent

  • hypermedia interaction

  • OS


Ve management simulation

VE management - simulation

  • Task : simulating everyday world

  • Traditional simulation methods do not work.

    (requires pre-processing)

  • Need : “meta-modeling”


Ve management rendering

VE management - rendering

  • Issue : load balancing

    • 1. partitioning VE

    • 2. LOD

  • Much work has been done on static scene.

  • Research issues

    • 1. dynamic scene

    • 2. parallel rendering


1 4 state of the art issues

OS

  • real-time, multi-modal requirements

  • very high-resolution time slicing

  • atomic, transparent distribution of tasks

  • large number of light-weighted processors, communicating by means of shared memory

  • support for time-critical computing:

    • negotiated, graceful degradation

    • guaranteed frame rate, lag time


Vr technologies1

VR technologies

(1) human-machine interface

(2) computer generation of VE

(3) tele-robotics

(4) network


3 tele robotics

(3) Tele-robotics

  • tele-robotics and VR

  • hardware

  • time-delay problem

  • distributed tele-robots


4 network

(4) Network

  • The future is here!

  • applications

    • distance learning

    • group entertainment

    • distributed training

    • distributed design

  • current

  • future

  • What is needed


1 4 state of the art issues1

1-4. State of the Art & Issues

  • Reference

    • Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges”, pp. 35-66, National Research Council, National Academic Press, 1995.

  • Areas of the study

    • application domains

    • psychological issues

    • VR technologies

    • evaluation of VR systems


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