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Unit 4 Imperialism Africa Chapter 28 India 765-772 Gandhi 907-915 China 741-751 Mao 859-862, 888-889, 897-898. Cecil Rhodes connecting Africa “Imperialism is a glorious pursuit”. Imperialism.

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Unit 4 ImperialismAfrica Chapter 28India 765-772Gandhi 907-915China 741-751Mao 859-862, 888-889, 897-898

Cecil Rhodes connecting Africa

“Imperialism is a glorious pursuit”

  • “The takeover of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of the people”
social darwinism
Social Darwinism
  • –“Survival of the fittest”
  • Societies with more wealth, power and technology were superior to those without
  • Europeans had a right and a duty to spread their superiority
direct control indirect control
Local officials used

Limited self-rule

Goal- develop future leaders

Based on European style governments with local flavor

Foreign officials brought in to rule

No self-rule

Goal- Assimilation

Based ONLY on European style governments

Direct Control Indirect Control
five motives of imperialism
Five Motives of Imperialism
  • Economic
  • Political
  • Religious
  • Exploratory
  • Ideological
types of empires

“Owning” colonies





Made of people of various region within the empire



Types of Empires
positives negatives


Health (medicines)

Often united warring groups

Few rights/liberties

Loss of culture


Stronger doesn’t really care

Positives Negatives
ireland 1845 1851
Ireland 1845-1851
  • A colony of Britain
  • Starvation caused by potato crop failure
  • Up to 25% of pop. died
    • (1 million+)
  • Continued to export food to England
  • England did nothing to help
  • Increased Irish Nationalism
  • Increased US Emigration


  • Women also subjugated in various ways:
  • Japan - face painting
  • Europe – corsets
  • Chain – foot binding
  • Diamonds and gold
  • Rubber, Copper, Tin
  • Cocoa and Tea
  • Seen as untapped wealth by European nations
  • Berlin Conference 1884-1885 (no Africans)
  • Europeans claim areas
treatment of subjects
Treatment of “Subjects”
  • Paternalism – treating Africans like children to be coddled, or punished!
  • Assimilation – changed African culture by making it more European and therefore, the people more European
african conflicts
African Conflicts
  • Many clashes btwn Europeans & Africans AND Europeans & themselves
  • Boer Wars – Dutch settlers fighting to claim gold
  • Zulu Wars – warriors led by Shaka, united tribes
  • European military technology too powerful
african conflicts1
African Conflicts
  • Suez canal 1869
  • Shortest link btwn Europe and Asia
  • Built by French
  • Fought for by many

Suez Canal

guns germs and steel
Guns, Germs, and Steel
  • Jared Diamond
  • Theory of Imperialism
  • Why some countries were able to become powerful, while others remained weak
  • British economic claims date to 1600’s
  • The “Jewel of the Crown”
  • British policy prevented Indians form profiting - $ goes to England
  • British East India Company (BEIC)
  • Tea
  • Indigo
  • Coffee
  • Cotton
  • Opium
  • Railroads moved goods from interior
  • 3rd largest in world
indian districts
Indian Districts
  • Split into many districts, governed by British Viceroys
  • BEIC is the real power
  • Indians worried about Christianity
  • Hindus and Muslims (Yugoslavia)

Flag of the BEIC

sepoy rebellion 1857
Sepoy Rebellion - 1857
  • Sepoys – Indian soldiers working for the British
  • Refuse to fire guns bcz of religious purposes
  • Cow and pork fat in cartridges
  • Act of Revolution
independence movements
Indian National Congress Party

British Empire in India

Fought for Indian independence

Young, educated Indians

Young Turks

Ottoman Empire in Middle East

Fought for Turkish independence

Young, educated Turks

Independence Movements
loyal subjects
Loyal Subjects?
  • Britain tells India they will grant self-government after WWI
  • They don’t
  • A greater call for Indian independence
  • A leader is needed!

Gandhi search

Gandhi movie

  • Into the 1800’s China is a self-sufficient empire and anti-European
  • Only trade was with Britain
  • Chinese tea for British silver
  • Eventually opium was imported to China from…
china japan
Qing Dynasty


Peasants still poor

Sphere of Influence

Rise of Nationalism


Meiji Restoration

Elite/wealthy sponsor reform


Invaded Manchuria

Russo-Japanese War

Annexed Korea


China Japan
china opium
China & Opium
  • Influx of opium created social problems, British refuse to cut back
  • Opium War of 1839 – British easily defeat Chinese navy and take control of Hong Kong
Opium addiction a serious problem
    • 27%!
  • Another problem was the population – 430 million by 1850
  • Famine and starvation rampant
  • Corruption of gov’t leads to rebellion against Qing dynasty
the boxer rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion
  • “The Society of Harmonious Fists”
    • aka The Boxers
  • 1900 Boxers attack European section of Beijing – lasts for months
  • Multi-national forces defeat Boxers
  • Chinese realize they must reform
ROW convinces China to institute a constitutional monarchy
  • Slow process and not very successful
  • European powers still in control
  • 1911 revolution Nationalists (Shek)
a change in thinking
A Change in Thinking
  • Nationalists control
    • Guomingdang
  • Peasants still peasants (F.R?)
  • Communists offer land and change
  • Civil War erupts, weakens gov’t protection, Japan invades
mao zedong 1893 1976
Mao Zedong (1893-1976)
  • Chairman/Founder of Chinese Communist Party
  • 1949 Unified China for 1st time since Opium War
  • Ineffective economic policies
  • Fear and intimidation
  • Millions die
  • Symbol of Chinese Communism
Mao search
  • Mao bio
mohandas gandhi mao zedong leadership styles events
Mohandas Gandhi Mao ZedongLeadership Styles & Events

"Power comes from the barrel of a gun."

"You must be the change you wish to see.."