Nanotechnology. Student presentation from previous BIOT 412 class. What is Nanotechnology. The prefix “ nano ”is a Greek word for “ dwarf ” One nanometer (nm) is equal to one-billionth of a meter About a width of 6 carbon atoms or 10 water molecules
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Student presentation from previous BIOT 412 class
Intentional design, characterization, production and application of materials, structures, devices and systems by controlling their size, and shape in the nano-scale range (10 - 100nm)
New way to control the properties of materials
Change size…..instead of changing composition
Research on biosystems at the nanoscale has created one of the most dynamic science and technology domains at the confluence of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, biotechnology, and medicine
Most the diseases originate from alterations in biological process at the molecular or nano-scale levels
Mutated genes, mis-folded proteins and infections caused by viruses or bacteria lead to cell malfunction or miscommunication, sometimes leading to life-threatening diseases. These molecules and infectious materials are nanometer in size and may be located in biological systems that are protected by nanometer size barriers such as nuclear pores 9 nm in diameter
- Quantum dots
- Microscopic sampling
FUTURE APPLICATION: microscopic machine roaming through the bloodstream, injecting or taking samples for identification and determining the concentrations of different compounds
A CYTOTOXIC T CELL DESTROYING A CANCER CELL
This shows a normal process unaided by nanotechnology.
Cytotoxic T cell
To cure skin diseases, cream containing nanorobots possible uses:
- Remove right amount of dead skin cells
- Remove excess oils
- Add missing oils
- Apply the right amounts of natural moisturizing compounds
- Achieve the elusive goal of \'deep pore cleaning\' by actually reaching down into pores and cleaning them out
A mouthwash full of smart nanomachines could identify and destroy pathogenic bacteria while allowing harmless flora of mouth to flourish in a healthy ecosystem
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Four remote-controlled nanorobots examine and clean the surfaces of a patient\'s teeth, near the gumline.
Devices working in the bloodstream could nibble away at atherosclerotic deposits, widening the affected blood vessels.
This would prevent most heart attacks
There are many risks too
Nanotoxicology is the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials
Nanomaterials, even when made of inert elements like gold, become highly active at nanometer dimensions
For example: Diesel nanoparticles have been found to damage the cardiovascular system in a mouse model
Andrew Maynard (Nanotechnology: A Research Strategy for Addressing Risks. p. 310.)
what happens if non-degradable or slowly degradable nanoparticles accumulate in bodily organs
Nanomaterials have proved toxic to human tissue and cell cultures, resulting in increased oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine production and cell death (Oberdörster, Günter; et al. (2005).