Taxonomy
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Taxonomy. By: Asiah Edwards . Taxonomy. The science of classification Kingdom, Phylum: Subphylum, Superclass, Class: Subclass, Superorder, Order: Suborder, Superfamily, Family: Subfamily, Genesis: Subgenus, Species: Subspecies. Binomial Nomenclature.

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Taxonomy

Taxonomy

By: Asiah Edwards


Taxonomy1

Taxonomy

  • The science of classification

  • Kingdom, Phylum: Subphylum, Superclass, Class: Subclass, Superorder, Order: Suborder, Superfamily, Family: Subfamily, Genesis: Subgenus, Species: Subspecies.


Binomial nomenclature

Binomial Nomenclature

  • The two name system for identifying organisms developed by C. Linnaeus.

  • The binomial nomenclature for humans is Homo sapiens.


Common names

Common Names

  • Terms that differ in different regions and can add to confusion when trying to identify organisms.

  • Blue Crab


Kingdom

Kingdom

  • Kingdom is a taxonomic rank that is composed of smaller groups called phyla or divisions for plants. Considered the highest rank in Taxonomy.

  • Kingdom Monera, Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, and Kingdom Animalia.


Phylum

Phylum

  • The primary subdivision of a taxonomic kingdom, grouping together all classes of organisms that have the same body plan.

  • An example would be the phylum Arthropods also known as insects.


Class

Class

  • The usual major subdivision of a phylum or division in the classification of organisms, usually consisting of several orders.

  • An example of class would be Mammalia.


Order

Order

  • A taxonomic rank used in classifying organisms, generally below the class, and comprised of families sharing a set of similar nature or character.

  • The horse, rhinoceros, and tapir families are grouped in the order Perissodactyla.


Family

Family

  • A taxonomic rank in the classification of organisms between genus and order.

  • Hummingbirds are usually grouped in the family Trochilidae.


Genus

Genus

  • A taxonomic rank that includes group(s) of species that are structurally similar or phylogenetically related.

  • Homo is the genus for humans.


Species

Species

  • The lowest taxonomic rank and the most basic unit or category of biological classification.

  • sapiens is the species classification for humans.


Scientific name

Scientific Name

  • The Genus and species name assigned to one organism; usually Latin.

  • The scientific name for the black footed ferret is Mustelanigripes.


Aristotle

Aristotle

  • Greek philosopher who developed a crude classification that separated organisms based on where they lived.

  • Aristotle created the first classification system over 2000 years ago


Linnaeus

Linnaeus

  • Scientist who developed the system of classification still in use today using seven taxons and binomial nomenclature.

  • Linnaeus was the one who thought to use binomial names putting the genus first and the species last.


Evolutionary classification

Evolutionary Classification

  • Scientists determine an organisms evolutionary history by looking at gene sequence similarities in its DNA and RNA as well as looking at its physical characteristics.

  • The eagle and the crane are related to the Archaeopteryx.


Dna rna

DNA/rna

  • Nucleic acids in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that controls growth, development and maintenance of organisms; comparisons of DNA and RNA are used to determine how closely related organisms are.

  • Your DNA helps to give you certain traits like black hair or green eyes.


Cladogram

Cladogram

  • A diagram developed to show evolutionary relationships based on derived characteristics.


Cladistic analysis

Cladistic Analysis

  • Scientists determine an organisms evolutionary history by looking at gene sequence similarities in its DNA and RNA as well as looking at its physical characteristics.


Molecular clock

Molecular Clock

  • DNA comparisons in 2 species can compare how dissimilar the genes are; This dissimilarity indicates how long the 2 species shared a common ancestor.


Neutral mutations

Neutral Mutations

  • Unpredictable changes in DNA that produce variations that have no apparent affect on the success or fitness of an organism.


Derived characters

Derived Characters

  • Changes that develop in organisms that are different from their ancestors.

  • Using your right hand when you’re left handed.


Archae a

Archaea

  • Prokaryotic Archaeabacteria that can survive unusually harsh environments.


Bacteria

Bacteria

  • Prokaryotic Eubacteria such as streptococci and E.coli.


Eukarya

Eukarya

  • Includes 4 kingdoms of eukaryotic organisms: Protist, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.


Archaebacteria

Archaebacteria

  • Ancient forms of bacteria that survive extreme heat, acidity, or salinity or even methane.

  • The crenarchaeota is a type of Archaebacteria.


Eubacteria

Eubacteria

  • Slightly more advanced bacteria found in three common shapes: bacilli, cocci, and spirilla; range from mutualistic and beneficial forms to extremely deadly parasitic forms.


Protista

Protista

  • Mostly unicellular either photosynthetic or heterotrophic organisms.


Fungi

fungi

  • Mostly multicellular heterotrophic plant-like organisms with cell walls made out of chitin


Plantae

Plantae

  • Multicellular autotrophic plants with cellulose cell walls.


Animalia

Animalia

  • Multicellular heterotrophic organism having no cell wall and most with some form of sensory/nerve conduction.


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