Population Genetics. Terminology. Population - a localized group of individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring Gene Pool - all of the alleles for all genes in all individuals of the population. Major factors that alter allele frequency. Genetic Drift Gene Flow
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Population - a localized group of individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
Gene Pool - all of the alleles for all genes in all individuals of the population
These are chance events that cause allele frequencies to fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next
Tends to reduce genetic variation through losses of alleles
Two main types:
Bottle neck effect
A sudden change in the environment (flood / fire) that drastically reduces the population size; In the surviving population certain alleles may be over or under represented
Northern Elephant Seals were heavily hunted by man in the early 19th century reducing their population size to about 20 individuals. Today the population has rebounded to over 30,000 but the effects of the bottleneck are evident in their DNA. There is little genetic variation among this population when compared to a population of Southern Elephant seals that were not heavily hunted.
The transfer of alleles into or out of a population due to movement of fertile individuals or their gametes
For example - movement of pollen by wind or insects; movement of humans around the globe