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Measurement. 2011, 9, 8. Today’s Topics. Scale of measurement* Measurement reliability* Measurement validity**. Measuring a Variable. Nominal Scale: Mutually exclusive categories without order Political party: Democrat, Republican Gender: Male, Female

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measurement

Measurement

2011, 9, 8

today s topics
Today’s Topics
  • Scale of measurement*
  • Measurement reliability*
  • Measurement validity**
measuring a variable
Measuring a Variable
  • Nominal Scale: Mutually exclusive categories without order
    • Political party: Democrat, Republican
    • Gender: Male, Female
  • Ordinal Scale: Categories with rank order
    • Social class: Upper, middle, lower
    • Education level: High school, college, graduate
  • Interval-Ratio Scale: the intervals between two consecutive categories are the same size
    • Temperature
    • Income

arbitrary zero

natural zero

critical thinking question
Critical Thinking Question
  • What is the difference between measurement unit and unit of analysis?
reliability
Reliability
  • An indication of the consistency or stability of a measuring instrument
    • Free of random error
  • Question 1: You took an IQ test twice in one day. In the morning, you received a below-average score of 85. So took it again in the afternoon. This time, you received a above-average score of 120. What is the problem of the IQ test?
  • Question 2: I tend to be late because my watch is set 10 minutes behind. Is my watch reliable? What is the problem of the watch?
validity accuracy
Validity (Accuracy)
  • Whether a measure is truthful or genuine
    • Free of random error: Same result over and over
    • Free of systematic bias: Accurate result
    • Measures what it is designed to measure
      • Need for Achievement scale
lab 3 recap
Lab 3 Recap
  • Scale of measurement
    • Nominal scale
    • Ordinal scale
    • Interval-ratio scale
  • Reliability: Free of random error
  • Validity / Accuracy:
    • Free of random error
    • Free of systematic bias
    • Measures what it is supposed to measure
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