The basal ganglia
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THE BASAL GANGLIA. Stephen Crocker, Ph.D. Department of Neuroscience L4012 [email protected] Cerebral Cortex. Basal Ganglia. FUNCTIONS. Facilitates cortical output that initiates and produces effective motor (emotional and cognitive) behaviors.

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THE BASAL GANGLIA

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The basal ganglia

THE BASAL GANGLIA

Stephen Crocker, Ph.D.

Department of Neuroscience

L4012

[email protected]


The basal ganglia

Cerebral Cortex

Basal Ganglia

FUNCTIONS

Facilitates cortical output that initiates and produces effective motor (emotional and cognitive) behaviors.

Inhibits cortical output that produces competing or ineffective motor (emotional and cognitive) behaviors.

2/23

SJC/SJP: MEDS 371, 29 Mar 12


The basal ganglia

How Did Disease

Help Elucidate the Functions

of the Basal Ganglia?

3/23

SJC/SJP: MEDS 371, 01 Apr 10


The basal ganglia

  • DISEASES OF THE BASAL GANGLIA

  • Hypokinesias

  • impairment in initiation, velocity and amplitude of movement, hypertonia

  • Hyperkinesias

  • extra movements (dyskinesias), hypotonia

  • Dementias

  • cognitive and emotional dysfunctions

(e.g. Parkinson’s Disease)

(e.g. Huntington’s Disease)

4/23

SJC/SJP: MEDS 371, 01 Apr 10


The basal ganglia

PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Sir William Richard Gowers Parkinson Disease sketch 1886

Wikipedia.com

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SJC/SJP: MEDS 371, 01 Apr 10


The basal ganglia

PARKINSON'S DISEASE

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sf1N0Zf5IqA

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SJC/SJP: MEDS 371, 01 Apr 10


The basal ganglia

HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SpNsspu16Pg

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SJC/SJP: MEDS 371, 01 Apr 10


The basal ganglia

NEUROANATOMY

BASAL GANGLIA

Caudate

Putamen

Globus Pallidus

………

Substantia Innominata

Nucleus Basalis

Nucleus Accumbens

Olfactory Tubercle

Dorsal

Ventral

ASSOCIATED NUCLEI

Subthalamic Nucleus

Substantia Nigra

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Regions of the cerebral cortex that project to the corpus striatum

Regions of the cerebral cortex that project to the corpus striatum


The basal ganglia

How Do These Parts Work

Together?

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SJC/SJP: MEDS 371, 01 Apr 10


The basal ganglia

Integrative Signaling In the Basal Ganglia

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SJC/SJP: MEDS 371, 01 Apr 10


The basal ganglia

Insert Figure 18.3 and 18.4 from Purves here.

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SJC/SJP: MEDS 371, 01 Apr 10


The basal ganglia

STRIATAL ANATOMY

Association Ctx (layers IIII-V)

Limbic & Other

Association Ctx

(deep layer V)

Somatosensory Ctx

Motor Ctx

Substantia Nigra compacta

Direct pathway

(action selection)

Striosome

Indirect pathway

(action suppression)

Matrix

Medium spiny neurons

Cholinergic interneurons

Degenerating dopaminergic axons


The basal ganglia

Huntington’s

Disease

Hypokinesias

Parkinson’s

Disease

Hemiballism,

Athetosis

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SJC/SJP: MEDS 371, 01 Apr 10


The basal ganglia

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SJC/SJP: MEDS 371, 01 Apr 10


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